http://www.collembola.org/key/morulina.htm - Last updated on 2017.10.31 by Frans Janssens
Checklist of the Collembola: Key to the species of Morulina

This key is still under construction. Note that missing figures will be provided as soon as possible. Currently, the key is in the feasibility study phase to find out how to integrate in the checklist in a modular way a key that has been generated with DELTA.

José G. Palacios-Vargas, Ecología y Sistemática de Microartrópodos, Departamento de Ecología y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Ciensas, UNAM, 04510 México D.F.
Yan Gao, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai, 200032, China
Frans Janssens, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, B-2020, Belgium

Rationale

The rationale for taxa used and not used as well as subtaxonomic classification for some taxa is to be provided.

Key

Note that no distinction between subtaxa and taxa is made in the key.

1(0).   Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles fused into a single
          mass on fourth abdominal segment.......................... 2
        Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth
          abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind
          margin of the segment..................................... 9
 
2(1).   Ocular tubercle with 3 setae................................ 3
        Ocular tubercle with more than 3 setae...................... 7
 
3(2).   Maxilla styliform, with 2-3 lamellae, one of them with less
          than 6 or without teeth................................... 4
        Maxilla with a stout capitulum composed of 6 strong teeth and
          2 slender lamellae................................... crassa
 
4(3).   Mandible with 11-13 teeth.............................. theeli
        Mandible with fewer than 8 teeth............................ 5
 
5(4).   Mandible with 5 or 6 teeth.................................. 6
        Mandible with 7-8 teeth............................. verrucosa
 
6(5).   Mandible with 5 curved teeth; ventral tube with 5-6 setae.....
           ................................................. australis
        Mandible with 6 teeth; ventral tube with 8-12 setae...........
           .......................................... multatuberculata
 
7(2).   Ocular tubercle with 4 setae....................... callowayia
        Ocular tubercle with more than 4 setae...................... 8
 
8(7).   Mandible with 5 teeth; maxilla with 4 reduced lamellae;
          mouthparts elongated; ocular tubercle with 6-7 setae........
           .............................................. stevehopkini
        Mandible with 6 teeth; maxilla with capitulum thick and short,
          apex with 3 teeth; mouthparts not elongated; ocular tubercle
          with 5-6 setae..................................... gigantea
 
9(1).   Interocular area with 2 tubercles: composed of the fusion of
          each antennal with half of frontal....................... 10
        Interocular area with 3 tubercles: 2 antennal and 1 frontal...
           ........................................................ 11
 
10(9).  Cephalic dorso-internal and dorso-external tubercles with 6-7
          setae............................................ pawlowskii
        Cephalic dorso-internal and dorso-external tubercles with 8-10
          setae.......................................... triverrucosa
 
11(9).  Body colorations blue-black, homogeneous................... 12
        Body pigmented blue-black, not homogeneous, or pigment absent.
           ........................................................ 17
 
12(11). Mandible pectiniform with 12-15 teeth............. mackenziana
        Mandible with 5 or 7 teeth, apical two more or less curved. 13
 
13(12). Maxilla with elongated capitulum, styliform; ocular tubercles
          with 2-3 setae........................................... 14
        Maxilla with short thick capitulum with 3 teeth; ocular
          tubercle with 5-6 setae.................................. 16
 
14(13). Mandible with 5-6 teeth; ventral tube with less than 8 setae..
           ........................................................ 15
        Mandible with 7 teeth; ventral tube with 8-10 pairs of setae..
           .................................................. nucifera
 
15(14). Hypertrichosis strong; macrosetae with globular or cylindrical
          apex; dorso-internal tubercle of first thoracic segment with
          4-7 setae; frontal tubercle with 5 setae........... orientis
        Hypertrichosis weak; macrosetae acuminate or tapering apex;
          dorso-internal tubercle of first thoracic segment with 2
          setae; frontal tubercle with 2 setae............. himalayana
 
16(13). Dorso-internal tubercle of first thoracic segment with 3-7
          setae; hypertrichosis weak; mandible with 6 teeth whose of
          apex outward-hooking; antennal tubercles with 5-7 setae.....
           ................................................. thulensis
        Dorso-internal tubercle of first thoracic segment with 9-12
          setae; hypertrichosis strong; mandible with 5 teeth;
          antennal tubercles with 9-12 setae.................... alata
 
17(11). Dorsal ground whitish, with traces of pigment on dorsal
          tubercles; mandible with 5 or 7 teeth.................... 18
        Dorsal ground yellow areas on the thoracic segments i and ii,
          and abdominal segments i, ii, iii and iv; mandible with
          three teeth................................... gilvipunctata
 
18(17). Prothorax with 6 tubercles at most......................... 19
        Prothorax with 8 tubercles........................... delicata
 
19(18). Mandible with 5 teeth............................ pallidissima
        Mandible with 7 teeth.................................... alia

Differential diagnoses

alata
Antennal tubercles with 9–12 setae. Body colorations blue-black, homogeneous. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Dorso-internal tubercle of first thoracic segment with 9–12 setae. Hypertrichosis strong. Interocular area with 3 tubercles: 2 antennal and 1 frontal. Mandible with 5 or 7 teeth, apical two more or less curved. Mandible with 5 teeth. Maxilla with short thick capitulum with 3 teeth. Ocular tubercle with 5–6 setae.

alia
Body pigmented blue-black, not homogeneous, or pigment absent. Dorsal ground whitish, with traces of pigment on dorsal tubercles. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Interocular area with 3 tubercles: 2 antennal and 1 frontal. Mandible with 5 or 7 teeth. Mandible with 7 teeth. Prothorax with 6 tubercles at most.

australis
Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles fused into a single mass on fourth abdominal segment. Mandible with fewer than 8 teeth. Mandible with 5 or 6 teeth. Mandible with 5 curved teeth. Maxilla styliform, with 2–3 lamellae, one of them with less than 6 or without teeth. Ocular tubercle with 3 setae. Ventral tube with 5–6 setae.

callowayia
Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles fused into a single mass on fourth abdominal segment. Ocular tubercle with more than 3 setae. Ocular tubercle with 4 setae.

crassa
Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles fused into a single mass on fourth abdominal segment. Maxilla with a stout capitulum composed of 6 strong teeth and 2 slender lamellae. Ocular tubercle with 3 setae.

delicata
Body pigmented blue-black, not homogeneous, or pigment absent. Dorsal ground whitish, with traces of pigment on dorsal tubercles. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Interocular area with 3 tubercles: 2 antennal and 1 frontal. Mandible with 5 or 7 teeth. Prothorax with 8 tubercles.

gigantea
Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles fused into a single mass on fourth abdominal segment. Mandible with 6 teeth. Maxilla with capitulum thick and short, apex with 3 teeth. Mouthparts not elongated. Ocular tubercle with more than 3 setae. Ocular tubercle with more than 4 setae. Ocular tubercle with 5–6 setae.

gilvipunctata
Body pigmented blue-black, not homogeneous, or pigment absent. Dorsal ground yellow areas on the thoracic segments i and ii, and abdominal segments i, ii, iii and iv. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Interocular area with 3 tubercles: 2 antennal and 1 frontal. Mandible with three teeth.

himalayana
Body colorations blue-black, homogeneous. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Dorso-internal tubercle of first thoracic segment with 2 setae. Frontal tubercle with 2 setae. Hypertrichosis weak. Interocular area with 3 tubercles: 2 antennal and 1 frontal. Macrosetae acuminate or tapering apex. Mandible with 5 or 7 teeth, apical two more or less curved. Mandible with 5–6 teeth. Maxilla with elongated capitulum, styliform. Ocular tubercles with 2–3 setae. Ventral tube with less than 8 setae.

mackenziana
Body colorations blue-black, homogeneous. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Interocular area with 3 tubercles: 2 antennal and 1 frontal. Mandible pectiniform with 12–15 teeth.

multatuberculata
Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles fused into a single mass on fourth abdominal segment. Mandible with fewer than 8 teeth. Mandible with 5 or 6 teeth. Mandible with 6 teeth. Maxilla styliform, with 2–3 lamellae, one of them with less than 6 or without teeth. Ocular tubercle with 3 setae. Ventral tube with 8–12 setae.

nucifera
Body colorations blue-black, homogeneous. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Interocular area with 3 tubercles: 2 antennal and 1 frontal. Mandible with 5 or 7 teeth, apical two more or less curved. Mandible with 7 teeth. Maxilla with elongated capitulum, styliform. Ocular tubercles with 2–3 setae. Ventral tube with 8–10 pairs of setae.

orientis
Body colorations blue-black, homogeneous. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Dorso-internal tubercle of first thoracic segment with 4–7 setae. Frontal tubercle with 5 setae. Hypertrichosis strong. Interocular area with 3 tubercles: 2 antennal and 1 frontal. Macrosetae with globular or cylindrical apex. Mandible with 5 or 7 teeth, apical two more or less curved. Mandible with 5–6 teeth. Maxilla with elongated capitulum, styliform. Ocular tubercles with 2–3 setae. Ventral tube with less than 8 setae.

pallidissima
Body pigmented blue-black, not homogeneous, or pigment absent. Dorsal ground whitish, with traces of pigment on dorsal tubercles. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Interocular area with 3 tubercles: 2 antennal and 1 frontal. Mandible with 5 or 7 teeth. Mandible with 5 teeth. Prothorax with 6 tubercles at most.

pawlowskii
Cephalic dorso-internal and dorso-external tubercles with 6–7 setae. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Interocular area with 2 tubercles: composed of the fusion of each antennal with half of frontal.

stevehopkini
Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles fused into a single mass on fourth abdominal segment. Mandible with 5 teeth. Maxilla with 4 reduced lamellae. Mouthparts elongated. Ocular tubercle with more than 3 setae. Ocular tubercle with more than 4 setae. Ocular tubercle with 6–7 setae.

theeli
Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles fused into a single mass on fourth abdominal segment. Mandible with 11–13 teeth. Maxilla styliform, with 2–3 lamellae, one of them with less than 6 or without teeth. Ocular tubercle with 3 setae.

thulensis
Antennal tubercles with 5–7 setae. Body colorations blue-black, homogeneous. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Dorso-internal tubercle of first thoracic segment with 3–7 setae. Hypertrichosis weak. Interocular area with 3 tubercles: 2 antennal and 1 frontal. Mandible with 5 or 7 teeth, apical two more or less curved. Mandible with 6 teeth whose of apex outward-hooking. Maxilla with short thick capitulum with 3 teeth. Ocular tubercle with 5–6 setae.

triverrucosa
Cephalic dorso-internal and dorso-external tubercles with 8–10 setae. Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles separated on fourth abdominal segment, dorso-external tubercle displaced to hind margin of the segment. Interocular area with 2 tubercles: composed of the fusion of each antennal with half of frontal.

verrucosa
Dorso-external and dorso-lateral tubercles fused into a single mass on fourth abdominal segment. Mandible with fewer than 8 teeth. Mandible with 7–8 teeth. Maxilla styliform, with 2–3 lamellae, one of them with less than 6 or without teeth. Ocular tubercle with 3 setae.


References