http://www.collembola.org/publicat/glossary.htm - Last updated on 2009.04.20 by Frans Janssens
Checklist of the Collembola: Glossary of Morphological Terms

Frans Janssens, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, B-2020, Belgium

Preface

"It is odd that rigid International Rules of Nomenclature govern the names which taxonomists apply to species but that chaotic, undisciplinated freedom runs riot with the naming of the structures by which species are separated."
Peter N. Lawrence (1978)

A

a-row [of setae] (Moen & Ellis, 1984:195) : (n.)

abd (Maynard, 1951:289) : (n.)
* abbreviated expression of 'abdominal segment' (Maynard, 1951:289);

abd. I (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* abbreviated expression of 'first abdominal segment' (Guthrie, 1903:23);

abd. II (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* abbreviated expression of 'second abdominal segment' (Guthrie, 1903:23);

abdomen (Lubbock, 1873:55,67) : (n.) (pl.: abdomina) (adj.: abdominal)
* the posterior tagma of the body, posterior to the leg-bearing tagma and composed of 6 or fewer apparent segments;
* attached are the sucker, the catch and the saltatorial appendage (Lubbock, 1873:55);

abdominal segment (Folsom, 1937:7) : (n.)

abductor muscle (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274) : (n.)

acanthoid (André, 1988:507) : (n.)
see also eupathidium (André, 1988:=507);
* spine-like seta (Nayrolles, 1993:46);

accessory crown of tubules [of flagellum of spermatozoon] (Dallai, 1974:153) : (n.)

accessory boss (Skarzynski, 2002:174) : (n.)

accessory seta (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (n.) (pl.: accessory setae)

acone ocellus (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)
* ocellus that lacks crystalline cone (Maynard, 1951:6);

acrosome [of spermatozoon] (Dallai, 1974:153) : (n.)

acuminate [seta] (Mitra, 1984:102) : (adj)

acute (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (adj)
* sharply angled, less than 90 degrees;

adanal (André, 1988:515) : (n.)

adductor muscle (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274) : (n.)

aggenital area (André, 1988:515) : (n.)

aggenital seta (André, 1988:515) : (n.)

alimentary canal (Adams & Salmon, 1972:279) : (n.)
* consists of a fore gut, a mid-gut, the intestine and a rectum (Adams & Salmon, 1972:279);

anal appendage (Maynard, 1951:7,289) : (n.)
* modified bristlelike structure, occuring in the females of certain Sminthuridae, arising ventro-cephalad of the anus usually curving caudo-dorsad (Maynard, 1951:289);

anal crown (Arbea, 2003:6,7) : (n.)

anal flaps (Fjellberg, 1998:13) : (n.)
* a single dorsal and a pair of ventro-lateral flaps that surround the anus (Fjellberg, 1998:13);

anal horn (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* small horn borne dorsally on the most caudal abdominal segment (Guthrie, 1903:23);
* small hornlike spine borne dorsally on the last abdominal segment (Maynard, 1951:289);

anal lobe (Smolis & Skarzynski, 2004:9) : (n.)

anal opening (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)

anal organ (Guthrie, 1903:23) :
* one of the two modified hairs arising from a tubercle ventrocephalad of the anus, and usually curving caudo-dorsad (Guthrie, 1903:23);

anal papilla (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* the tubercle bearing the anal organs (Guthrie, 1903:23);
* in the Symphypleona: composed of the last two abdominal segments (Maynard, 1951:6,289);

anal sack (Leinaas, 1988:277) : (n.)
* three blind sacks emptying into the distal part of the hind gut; the sacks may be everted outwards exposed to the open air; possible sites for the production and/or release of pheromones (Leinaas, 1988:277);

anal segment (Folsom, 1937:5) : (n.)

anal seta (André, 1988:515) : (n.)

anal spine (Folsom, 1937:5) : (n.)

anal tubercle (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
see also anal papilla (Guthrie, 1903:23);

anal valve (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:104) : (n.)

anal valve chaetotaxy (Zeppelini & Christiansen, 2003:36) : (n.)

anal valve setae (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

anapleurite (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.)

ankylosis (Folsom, 1937:5) : (n.) (adj.: ankylosed)
* fusion (Maynard, 1951:6,289);

annulate (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:112) : (adj)

annulated (Maynard, 1951:5) : (adj)

anogenital segment (Snider, 1989:546) : (n.)

ant (Maynard, 1951:289) :
* abbreviated expression of 'antennal segment' (Maynard, 1951:289);

ant. I (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* abbreviated expression of 'first segment of the antenna'; the numbering of the segments beginning with the proximal (basal) segment (Guthrie, 1903:23);

ant. II (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* abbreviated expression of 'second segment of the antenna'; the numbering of the segments beginning with the proximal (basal) segment (Guthrie, 1903:23);

ante-clypeus (Packard, 1898:42) : (n.)
see also clypeus anterior (Packard, 1898:=42);

anteapical (Maynard, 1951:5) : (adj)

anteapical tooth [of mucro] (Folsom, 1937:3) : (n.)

antegenital setae (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

antenna (Lubbock, 1873:55,58) : (n.) (pl.: antennae) (adj.: antennal)
* situated on the upper surface of the head in front of the eyes (Lubbock, 1873:58);
* a paired, segmented sensory appendage of the head, which consists of four segments having intrinsic muscles;
* has four primary segments, each with its own musculature (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:8);
* the first and last segments may be subdivided into one or more subsegments (Fjellberg, 1998:11);

antennal base (Mitra, 1984:102) : (n.)

antennal organ (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* sense organ borne usually, when present, on the distal segment of the antenna (Guthrie, 1903:23);
* sense organ borne usually, when present, on the most distal segment of the antenna (Maynard, 1951:289);
* a sensory organ located in a dorso-lateral position near the tip of the third segment, consisting of one or more sensilla, which are sometimes hidden by integumentary folds or papillae (Fjellberg, 1998:11);

antennal sac (Bourgeois, 1974:195) : (n.)

antennal segment (Hopkin, 1997:47,142) : (n.)

antennal sense-organ (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (n.)

antenne (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)
see also antenna ;

antenno-frontal tubercles (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

antéoculaire (F.) (Laboulbene, 1864 cited from Dallai, 1971:11) : (n.)
see also postantennal organ (Dallai, 1971:=11);

antepenultimate segment (Lubbock, 1873:96) : (n.)
* segment in front of the last but one segment;

anterior : (adj)
* toward or at the front end of the body or structure;

anterior arm of Folsom (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)
* has the value of a superlingual sclerite (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101);

anteriorly (Maynard, 1951:5) : (adv)
see also anterior ;

antero- (Maynard, 1951:5) :

anterolaterally (Maynard, 1951:5) : (adv)

antipenultimate segment (Lubbock, 1873:70) : (n.)
see also antepenultimate segment ;

anus (Snodgrass, 1935) : (n.)
* the posterior opening of the alimentary canal (Snodgrass, 1935);

aorte (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:60,77) : (n.)

apex (Maynard, 1951:7) : (n.) (pl.: apices) (adj.: apical)
* part of a structure farthest from its point of attachment to the body;

apical (Maynard, 1951:5) : (adj)
* at or toward the tip;
* the end farthest away from the body;

apical bulb (Hopkin, 1997:88) : (n.)

apical organ [of fourth antennal segment] (Mitra, 1984:104) : (n.)

apical sense organ [of third antennal segment] (Zeppelini & Christiansen, 2003:36) : (n.)

apical tooth [of mucro] (Folsom, 1937:3) : (n.)

apodème mandibulaire (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:96,101) : (n.)

apodème maxillaire (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:96,101) : (n.)

apodeme of the oral fold (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

apophysis (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274) : (n.)

apolysis (Altner & Thies, 1972:196) : (n.)

appendice empodial (F.) (Denis in Grassé, 1949:125) : (n.)
* primitivement un tubercle effilé, puis, on voit sa base se munir d'une lamelle interne (Poduromorphes), 3 lamelles (Isotomiens, Symphypleona) ou 4 lamelles (chez les autres). Contre le tubercle empodial, du côté antérieur, souvent il y a l'appendice empodial (Denis in Grassé, 1949:125);
see also empodial appendage ;
see also tubercule empodial (F.) ;

appendicular segment (Nayrolles, 1993:44) : (n.)

appendicular seta (Nayrolles, 1993:45) : (n.)

area cervicalis (Mitra, 1993:5) : (n.)
* [cephalic region] adjacent to cervix, following area occipitalis, bounded latarally by area genalis (Mitra, 1993:5);

area dorsalis (Mitra, 1993:3) : (n.)
* [cephalic region] just in front of the area verticalis delimited on either side by the area subdorsalis (Mitra, 1993:3);

area genalis (Mitra, 1993:5) : (n.)
* [cephalic region] lateral outside the outer limit of ocellar field which delimits the area parietalis, area occipitalis and area cervicalis laterally (Mitra, 1993:5);

area occipitalis (Mitra, 1993:5) : (n.)
* [cephalic region] following the area parietalis, delimited posteriorly by area cervicalis and laterally by area genalis (Mitra, 1993:5);

area ocularis (Mitra, 1993:3) : (n.)
* [cephalic region] inside the ocellar field (Mitra, 1993:3);

area parietalis (Mitra, 1993:5) : (n.)
* [cephalic region] behind the area verticalis, bounded posteriorly by area occipitalis and laterally by area genalis and area postocularis (Mitra, 1993:5);

area postocularis (Mitra, 1993:4) : (n.)
* [cephalic region] just behind the ocellar field (Mitra, 1993:4);

area subdorsalis (Mitra, 1993:3) : (n.)
* [cephalic region] located behind the basis antennalis and continues posteriorly upto area verticalis along each ocellar field (Mitra, 1993:3);

area verticalis (Mitra, 1993:3) : (n.)
* [cephalic region] distinct from other regions in the greater localisation of macrochaetae in the genera where they are present; in others, having no macrochaetae, this zone is distinct in the absence of both scales and any type of setae; this area starts from the posterior limit of one ocellar field and ends at the other in the form of a "V" (Mitra, 1993:3);

architentorium (Hansen, 1930 cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:276) : (n.)
see also endosternum (Tuxen cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:=276);
see also tentorium (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:=99);

arcuate (Folsom, 1902:91) : (adj)

arthromere (Packard, 1898:30) : (n.)
see also segment (Packard, 1898:=30);

articulating apparatus (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:51) : (n.)

Außenglieder der Maxille (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)
see also lobus externus (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=64);

Außenlade (G.) (Nassonow, 1887 cited from Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)
see also palpus (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=62);

Außenlade (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)
* 2. Coxalglied der 1. Maxille (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII);
see also galea (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=62);

äußere ventralen Lamellen [der Maxillenkopf] (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:64) : (n.)

autapomorphy : (n.) (pl.: autapomorphies)

autoapomorfies[sic] (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:30) : (n.)
see also autapomorphy ;

autopomorphies[sic] (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:30) : (n.)
see also autapomorphy ;

axial filament [of spermatozoon] (Dallai, 1974:149) : (n.)

axone [de la cellule neurosécrétrice] (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:61) : (n.)

axoneme [of flagellum of spermatozoon] (Dallai, 1974:153) : (n.)

B

background color (Soto-Adames, 2002:78) : (n.)

bacilliform seta (Nayrolles, 1993:46) : (n.)
* a short blunt mesochaeta (Nayrolles, 1993:46);

baculiform (André, 1988:506) : (adj)

barb [on the ramus] (Stach, 1945:11) : (n.)

basal : (adj)
* the end closest to the body;
* at or toward the base;
synonym of proximal (sensu Maynard, 1951:289);

basal [dental] lamella (Folsom, 1913:463) : (n.)
* near each large proximal [dental] spine is a transparant lanceolate lamella (Folsom, 1913:457);
see also dental scale ;

basal flap [of lamella 5 of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)
* small chitinous flap, present behind lamella 5; either simple or with two small teeth (Fjellberg, 1984:90);

basal lamina (Humbert, 1979:41) : (n.)
* a 0.4 micron thick layer of an amorphous and floculate material, on which the epithelium lies (Humbert, 1979:41);

basal plate (Hopkin, 1997:104,145) : (n.)

basal plate [of manubrium] (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (n.)

basal rods [of manubrium] (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (n.)

basal seta [of maxillary palp] (Fjellberg, 1984:84) : (n.)
* an ordinary seta, near the base of the palp; always present (Fjellberg, 1984:84);

basal socket [of seta] (Fjellberg, 1984:84) : (n.)

basal spine [of terminal hair of papilla of maxillary palp] (Fjellberg, 1984:85) : (n.)
* short spine on inner side of the terminal hair in Sminthuridae [s.l.] (Fjellberg, 1984:87);

basiconic (Altner & Thies, 1972:196) : (adj)

basis antennalis (Mitra, 1993:3,4) : (n.)

bent [macrochaeta] (Mitra, 1984:102) : (adj)

bidentate [mucro] (Mitra, 1984:102) : (adj)

bifid (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (adj)

bifurcate (Fjellberg, 1998:9,11) : (adj)

bifurcate [maxillary] palp (Fjellberg, 1984:83) : (n.)
* [terminal hair and] ventral process present (Fjellberg, 1984:84);

bilobed (Maynard, 1951:7) : (adj)

bi-partite (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274) : (adj)

bisetaceous (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:170) : (adj)

bi-stratified acrosome [of spermatozoon] (Dallai, 1974:153) : (n.)

biunguiculate (Lubbock, 1873:67) : (adj)
* having two unguiculi;

blotch (Mitra, 1984:102) : (n.)

body (Packard, 1898:26) : (n.) (pl.: bodies)
* consisting of heteronomous segments, arranged in three well-defined regions (Packard, 1898:26);

body clothing (Maynard, 1951:8) : (n.)

body region (Packard, 1898:26) : (n.)
* head, thorax and abdomen (Packard, 1898:26);

body segmentation (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:134) : (n.)

boss (Snider, 1989:541) : (n.)

bothridium (André, 1988:507) : (n.)

bothriotrichium : (n.) (pl.: bothriotrichia)
(ety.: bothrio-, from Lat. bothrium, from Gr. bothrion, from Gr. bothros = pit, Lat. suffix -ium, Gr. suffix -ion = diminutive, = small pit; -trichium from Lat. trichum, from Gr. trichon, from Gr. trichos = hair; bothr-i-o-trich-i-um = pit-diminutive-adjective-hair-diminutive-noun; = small-pitted fine hair)
* long, plain, wavy sensory hair(s) (Salmon, 1964:102);
see also bothriotrichum ;

bothriotrichum (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980) : (n.) (pl.: bothriotricha)
(ety.: bothrio-, from Lat. bothrium, from Gr. bothrion, from Gr. bothros = pit, Lat. suffix -ium, Gr. suffix -ion = diminutive, = small pit; -trichum from Lat. trichum, from Gr. trichon, from Gr. trichos = hair; bothr-i-o-trich-um = pit-diminutive-adjective-hair-noun; = small-pitted hair)
* long, fine sensory hair(s) (Maynard, 1951:289);
* exceedingly fine, elongate, ciliate seta(e) (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:5);

bothriothrix (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:168) : (n.) (pl.: Gr. bothriotriches (but never used); bothriotricha (Greenslade, 2009.04.20:in litt.))
(ety.: bothrio-, from Lat. bothrium, from Gr. bothrion, from Gr. bothros = pit, Lat. suffix -ium, Gr. suffix -ion = diminutive, = small pit; -thrix, from Gr. thrix (feminine, nominative), from Gr. trichos (genitive) = hair; bothr-i-o-thrix = pit-diminutive-adjective-hair; = small-pitted hair)
* a long and very thin sensillum inserted in a large cup-shaped cuticular depression (Bretfeld, 1999:4);
* a hair in a pit (Greenslade, 2009.04.20:in litt);
see also bothriotrichum ;

bouche (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:94) : (n.)

bras antérieur dorsal (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

bras antérieur de Folsom (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:99) : (n.)
* une formation mixte à la fois exosquelettique et endosquelettique; il n'existe que chez les Collemboles à pièces buccales broyeuses (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:99);

bras de Folsom (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

bras dorsolatéral externe (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

bras dorsolatéral interne (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

bras horizontal de la ®pidaŻ (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

bras moyen ventral (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

bras postérieur latéro-dorsal (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

bras transverse postérieur (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

bras ventraux médiaux (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

bristle (Salmon, 1964:102) : (n.)
* stout, stiff hair (Salmon, 1964:102);
see also seta ;

buccal area (Snider, 1989:542) : (n.)

buccal cavity (Fjellberg, 1998:11) : (n.)
see also buccal cone ;

buccal cone (Adams & Salmon, 1972:272) : (n.)
* situated antero-ventrally on the head, is formed by the labrum and labium. It is not a true cone but is truncated and flattened dorso-ventrally (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274);

buccal opening (Adams & Salmon, 1972:273) : (n.)

bulge surface [of postantennal organ] (Dallai, 1971:12) : (n.)

C

cæcum(sic) (F.) (Lubbock, 1873:72) : (n.)
synonym of rectum (sensu Lubbock, 1873:=74);

campaniform organ (Berlese, 1909 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:35) : (n.)
see also campaniform sensillum (Berlese, 1909 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:35);

campaniform sensillum (Snider & Loring, 1984:35) : (n.)
* dome-shaped [cuticular] structure (Berlese, 1909 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:35);
* homologue of hair sensillum (Berlese, 1909 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:36);
* small, rounded, dome-shaped papilla resembling elliptical hair follicle socket (Snodgrass, 1926 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:35);
* this structure is a stress receptor used for proprioception (Pringle, 1938 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:35);

capitular apophysis (after Adams & Salmon, 1972:274) : (n.)
* An abductor-adductor muscle is attached to the medial face of the capitulum by means of an apohysis, which extends backwards for about one-third the length of the stipes (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274);

capitulum (Adams & Salmon, 1972:272) : (n.)
* the apical head of the maxilla (Hopkin, 1997:51);
* the maxillary head articulates with the distal end of the stipes (Fjellberg, 1998:11);

caput (Moen & Ellis, 1984:193) : (n.)

caput of maxilla (Moen & Ellis, 1984:194) : (n.)
see also capitulum ;

cardiac valve (Adams & Salmon, 1972:277) : (n.)
* anterior valve of the gizzard (Adams & Salmon, 1972:279-280);

cardinal flexor muscle of the lacina (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

cardo (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.) (pl.: cardines)
* subcoxa [der 1. Maxille] (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63,Tafel VII);
* the basal part of the maxilla;

cardo-posterior tentorial membrane (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)

catch (Lubbock, 1873:55,69) : (n.)
* situated on the ventral side of the third abdominal segment (Lubbock, 1873:69);
* it consists of a basal portion and two short arms, each with four teeth on the outer margin (Lubbock, 1873:70);
synonym of tenaculum (sensu Guthrie, 1903:=23);

caudal (Maynard, 1951:290) : (adj)

caudo- (Maynard, 1951:289) :

caudo-dorsad (Maynard, 1951:289) : (adj)

cauliflower-like granule [on tubercle] (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:117) : (n.)

cavité atriale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (n.)

cavité du pli (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (n.)

cavité générale mixocoelienne (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (n.)

cavité prélabiale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (n.)

cellule hypodermique (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

cellule neurosécrétrice (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:61) : (n.)

cellule neurosécrétrice latérale (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

cellule neurosécrétrice de la pars intercerebralis (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

cephalad (Maynard, 1951:289) : (adj)

cephalic (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (adj)

cephalic excretory organ (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:345-346) : (n.)
see also nephridial organ ;

cephalic gland (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

cephalic groove (Soto-Adames, 2002:81) : (n.)

cephalic kidney (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

cercus [on the fifth abdominal segment] (Imms, 1912 cited from Mari Mutt, 1979) : (n.)
see also elongated last abdominal segment ;

cerveau (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

cervical (André, 1988:508) : (n.)

chaeta (Smolis & Skarzynski, 2004:9) : (n.)

chaeta sensualis (Smolis & Skarzynski, 2004:9) : (n.)
see also sensillum (Smolis & Skarzynski, 2004:=9);

chaetotaxy (Hopkin, 1997:56) : (n.) (pl.: chaetotaxies)

cheek (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)
see also gena (Maynard, 1951:6);

chitin (Packard, 1898:29) : (n.) (adj.: chitinous)

chloted (Mitra, 1984:101) : (adj)

chloting (Mitra, 1984:102) : (n.)

chromatin [of nucleus of spermatozoon] (Dallai, 1974:149,153) : (n.)

ciliate (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:40) : (adj)

ciliated (Maynard, 1951:8) : (adj)

ciliated setae (Salmon, 1964:102) : (n.)
* setae have their shafts supplied with whorls of fine hairs (Salmon, 1964:102);

cilium (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:56) : (n.)

circinate entomobryiform male genital plate (Christiansen, 1958:474) : (n.)
* [entomobryiform male genital plate bearing] normally smooth and acuminate [setae], but instead of a dense covering only a single row of setae occurs as a ring surrounding the gonopore; this type often has a contraction or shoulder along the line of the setae; the bases of the setae may describe a clear circle or the may be very irregular in position, so that no clear pattern can be seen; in addition to these setae there are in most genera two to six much smaller setae situated near the margin of the gonopore (Christiansen, 1958:474-475);
see also entomobryiform male genital plate ;

circular furrow [of pseudocellus] (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.)

circumanal seta (Loring & Snider, 1983:188) : (n.) (pl.: circumanal setae)

circumoesophageal ring (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:348) : (n.)

clasping organ [of antenna] (Hopkin, 1997:138) : (n.)

clavate (Maynard, 1951:8) : (adj)
* with apex swollen into a rounded or spathulate knob (Salmon, 1964:102);

clavate hair (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* hair with swollen or clubbed ends, borne most commonly on the tip of the tibia (Guthrie, 1903:23);

clavate [seta] (Folsom, 1937:7) : (n.)
* setae have their apices swollen into a rounded or spathulate knob (Salmon, 1964:102);

clavi-form [macrochaeta] (Mitra, 1984:102) : (adj)

claw (Lubbock, 1873:67,125) : (n.)
* in Podura aquatica the legs terminate in a strong curved claw; but the great number of species are biunguiculate, the two claws not being terminal and opposite, but placed one above the other (Lubbock, 1873:67);
* the claw [of Papirius ornatus] is stouter than in P. fuscus, and the lower angle is produced into a small claw (Lubbock, 1873:125);
* consists of an unguis and an unguiculus arising from the pretarsus (Fjellberg, 1998:11);
see also crochet (F.) ;
synonym of unguis (sensu Maynard, 1951:290);

cloisons hypodermiques du pli (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

clothing (Folsom, 1937:7) : (n.)

club (Kaprus, Weiner & Pomorski, 2002:353) : (n.)

club-shaped hair (Lubbock, 1873:55) : (n.)

clypeal area (André, 1988:508) : (n.)

clypeal tubercles (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

clypéofrons (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:93,101) : (n.)

clypeofrons (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)

clypeofrontal area (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)

clypeolabrum (Hopkin, 1997:143,145) : (n.)
* future labrum (Hopkin, 1997:143);

clypeus (Packard, 1898:42) : (n.)
* that part of the head situated in front of the epicranium, and anterior to the eyes, forming the roof of the posterior part of the mouth (Packard, 1898:42);
* the medial sclerite of the head immediately above the labrum; often defined dorsally and laterally by the epistomal groove;

clypeus anterior (Packard, 1898:42) : (n.)
* the anterior part of the clypeus (Packard, 1898:42);

clypeus posterior (Packard, 1898:42) : (n.)
* the posterior part of the clypeus (Packard, 1898:42);

coecum (F.) (Nicolet, 1842:46) : (n.)

collaphore[sic] (Snider & Loring, 1984:39) : (n.)
see also collophore ;

collar (Soto-Adames, 2002:81) : (n.)
see also collarette ;

collarette (Mari Mutt, 1978:44) : (n.)
* a tuft of macrochaetae on the anterior margin of the mesothorax (Mari Mutt, 1978:44);

collophore (Maynard, 1951:7) : (n.)
* a cylindrical midventral appendage on the first abdominal segment with paired eversible vesicles at its tip (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:1);
see also ventral tube (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:=1);

colouration (Mitra, 1984:102) : (n.)

companiform[sic] sensillum (Snodgrass, 1926 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:35) : (n.)
see also campaniform sensillum ;

compound eye (Paulus, 1974:132) : (n.)

condyle (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (n.)

cône buccal (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (n.)

cone cell (Paulus, 1974:128) : (n.)

connective [of primary granules] (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.)

corneagenous cell (Paulus, 1974:128) : (n.)

cornea (Snodgrass, 1935) : (n.)
* the cuticular part of an eye (Snodgrass, 1935);

Corneagenzellen (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)
see also corneagenous cell ;

corneole (Dallai, 1971:11) : (n.)
see also cornula ;

cornula (Thibaud, 1970:193) : (n.) (pl.: cornulae)

coronal suture (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)
* posterior median line of the T-shaped frontal sulcus (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135);

corpus (Maynard, 1951:7) : (n.)
* the basal portion of the retinaculum (Maynard, 1951:7);
* the single basal piece of the tenaculum (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:19);

corpus allatum (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:60,77) : (n.) (pl.: corpora allata)

corpus tenaculi (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:107) : (n.)

courte épigne accolée (F.) (Betsch, 1980 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:36) : (n.)
see also campaniform sensillum ;

coxa (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.) (pl.: coxae) (adj.: coxal)

Coxale (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)

Coxalglieder (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)

Coxalglied der 1. Maxille (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62, Tafel VII) : (n.)
* 1. Coxalglied der 1. Maxille = Innenlade + Stipes (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62, Tafel VII);
* 2. Coxalglied der 1. Maxille = Außenlade (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62, Tafel VII);

Coxalia (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)

coxopodite (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

crater (de Mendonça & Fernandes, 2003:2) : (n.)

crenulated lamella of the mucro (Salmon, 1964:102) : (n.)
* bears blunt or rounded tooth-like projections along its length (Salmon, 1964:102);

crenulation (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:104) : (n.)
Fig.1. Le tarse et ses crochets vus de deux côtés
(Nicolet, 1842:87, Pl.3 fig.7, a et b).

crochet (F.) (Nicolet, 1842:37) : (n.) (pl.: crochets)
* les deux lobes [du tarse] se réunissent en dessus et forment une espèce de voûte qui recouvre la base d'un crochet bifide terminant la patte (Nicolet, 1842:37);
see also claw ;

crochet antérieur (F.) (Nicolet, 1842:37) : (n.)
* l'un des crochets du tarse, l'antérieur, est fort, assez recourbé ou crochu comme les griffes des oiseaux et très-aigu (Nicolet, 1842:37);
see also unguis ;

crochet [postérieur?] (F.) (Nicolet, 1842:37) : (n.)
* l'autre [crochet] n'est pas précisément un crochet; c'est plutôt une lame solide, assez mince, surtout à son bord supérieur, tronquée à l'extrémité avec un filet ou poil terminal solide, implanté à l'angle inférieur de la troncature; cette lame, dont le bord intérieur est plus épais, est attachée au côté gauche du crochet antérieur et fait corps avec lui; sa longueur égale à peine la moité de celle de l'autre (fig. 7 a, b, pl. 3) (Nicolet, 1842:37);
note: Nicolet has given two figures of a foot, seen from different sides; but neither of them agrees altogether with any of those examined by me (Lubbock, 1873:105 on the feet of Smynthurus(sic));
note: Lubbock (1873:105) mistakenly assumed that Nicolet's drawing represents the foot of Smynthurus(sic), presumably because Nicolet did specify neither genus nor species for figure 7, and the three previous figures (4, 5 and 6) all relate to Smynthurus(sic). But the unguiculus in figure 7 typically maps with that of Podura similata Nicolet, 1842:56 (= Hypogastrura viatica), a very common species, also in Nicolet's days. Pl. 3, titled 'Têtes et organes divers.', presents the general habitus of characteristic features of common species. Lubbock (1873:178) found Achorutes dubius Templeton, 1835 (= Hypogastrura viatica) in England, but in stead of providing a redescription, he simply quoted Templeton's original description, and therefore he presumably overlooked the similarity of the unguiculus with Nicolet's drawing. Secondly, he overlooked Nicolet, 1842:11: '...; mais je dois commencer par dire que toutes ces expériences ainsi que mes observations sur l'anatomie des Podurelles, n'ont été faites que sur une seule espèce, le Podura similata, figurée planche 5, fig.5.' To conclude: Nicolet, 1842:Pl.3 fig.7 = tarsus of Podura similata Nicolet, 1842:56 (= Hypogastrura viatica) (Janssens, 2003:unpublished);
see also foot ;
see also unguiculus ;

crooked seta (Nayrolles, 1993:46) : (n.)
* a blunt seta ending by a crook (Nayrolles, 1993:46);

crop (Nicolet, 1842 cited from Lubbock, 1873:74) : (n.)
* une simple dilatation de l'ésophage, dont le diamètre varie selon que l'insecte a plus ou moins mangé (Nicolet, 1842 cited from Lubbock, 1873:74);
* existing between the oesophagus and the stomach (Lubbock, 1873:74);

cryptopygy (Smolis, 2001:413) : (n.)

crystalline cone (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)
* an extracellular secretion of proteinic nature (Barra, 1971:53);

cucumiform seta (Nayrolles, 1993:46) : (n.)
* a medium-sized blunt mesochaeta (Nayrolles, 1993:46);

cup-like organ [of femur] (Nayrolles, 1993:47) : (n.)

cuspidate inner tooth [of unguiculus] (Mitra, 1974:323) : (n.)

cuticle (Packard, 1898:28) : (n.)
* secreted by the hypodermis (Packard, 1898:28);
* of varying thickness and flexibility (Packard, 1898:28-29);
* usually very dense, impermeable, and light, due to the presence of chitin (Packard, 1898:29);
* forms a more or less solid crust which is broken intp joints and sclerites (Packard, 1898:29);

cuticula (Moen & Ellis, 1984:199) : (n.)

cuticular cavity system (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:51) : (n.)

cuticular clasps [of manubrium] (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (n.)

cuticular fold (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:27) : (n.)

cuticular furrow (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.)
see also cuticular groove (Carpenter, 1921:=261);

cuticular groove (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.)

cuticular pattern (Dallai, 1974:314) : (n.)

cuticulin (Dallai, 1974:317) : (n.)

cyclomorphosis (Hopkin, 1997:57,153) : (n.)
* ecomorphosis as part of a regular seasonal cycle (Hopkin, 1997:153);

cylinder (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)
see also tube cylinder ;

cyst [of spermatozoon] (Dallai, 1974:153) : (n.)

cysterna (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.) (pl.: cysternae)

cysterne (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

cytoplasm (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

D

dens (Carpenter, 1921:262) : (n.) (pl.: dentes) (adj.: dental)
* the basal segment of an arm of the furca (Fjellberg, 1998:10);
* the base of the dens articulates with the manubrium by condyle-like structures (Fjellberg, 1998:13);

dental chaetotaxy (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:168) : (n.)

dental papilla (Richards, 1968 cited from Nayrolles, 1993:47) : (n.)

dental scale (Massoud & Ellis, 1974:298) : (n.)
* une écaille en forme de fuseau, sur la dens, en position proximale interne (Massoud & Ellis, 1974:292);

dental scale appendage (Mitra, 1974:323) : (n.)

dental seta (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:168) : (n.) (pl.: dental setae)

dental spine (Mitra, 1984:101) : (n.)

dental spiny appendage (Mitra, 1984:101,105) : (n.)

dentes (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* the second or middle part of the furcula, consisting of two separate parallel pieces which proceed from the distal end of the manubrium, and bear at their own distal ends the two mucrones (Guthrie, 1903:23);
see also dens ;

denticle (Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)

denticulate (Fjellberg, 1984:91) : (adj)

denticulation (Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)

dendrite (Altner & Thies, 1972:196) : (n.) (adj.: dendritic)

deuterocerebron (Willems, 1900:11) : (n.)
* donnant naissance aux nerfs antennaires (Willems, 1900:11);

deutocerebrum (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:343) : (n.)

digestive organs (Lubbock, 1873:74) : (n.)
* pass straight through the body without any circumvolutions from the head to the tail, and fall into three divisions, the oesophagus, the stomach, and the rectum (Lubbock, 1873:74);
see also oesophagus ;
see also stomach ;
see also rectum ;

digestive tract (Adams & Salmon, 1972:275) : (n.)

dioptric apparatus (Paulus, 1974:128) : (n.)

dioptrischen Apparates (G.) (Paulus, 1974:126) : (n.)
see also dioptric apparatus ;

distal (Maynard, 1951:289) : (adj)

distal cleft [of manubrium] (Moen & Ellis, 1984:201) : (n.)

diverticulum (Adams & Salmon, 1972:277) : (n.) (pl.: diverticula)

dorsad (Maynard, 1951:289) : (adj)

dorsal : (adj)
* toward or at the top or upper surface of the body or structure;

dorsal anal valve (Lawrence, 1978:69) : (n.)
* upper almost spherical lobe of the 'abdomen VI' (Lawrence, 1978:69);

dorsal organ [of first instar larva] (Skarzynski, 2002:174) : (n.)

dorsal process [of papilla of maxillary palp] (Fjellberg, 1984:85) : (n.)
* long [modified dorso-lateral] process [of papilla of maxillary] palp in Sminthurides (Fjellberg, 1984:87);

dorsal vessel (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:347) : (n.)

dorsalen Lamellen [der Maxillenkopf] (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:64) : (n.)

dorso-lateral hair-like process [of papilla of maxillary palp] (Fjellberg, 1984:84) : (n.)
* similar but shorter than the ventral process; probably not homologous to ordinary setae as their bases are unmodified, without sockets (Fjellberg, 1984:84);

dorso-lateral process [of papilla of maxillary palp] (Fjellberg, 1984:85) : (n.)
see also dorso-lateral hair-like process [of papilla of maxillary palp] ;

dorsoexternal tubercles (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

dorsointernal tubercles (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

dorsolateral tubercles (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

dorsum (Loring & Snider, 1983:185) : (n.)

E

ebauche des corps allates (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:72,77) : (n.)

ecdysial line (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)

ecomorphosis (Hopkin, 1997:57,153) : (n.)
* changes in the morphology induced by specific climatic conditions (Hopkin, 1997:153);

ectoskeletal segment (Packard, 1898:32) : (n.)
see also segment ;

ekteukonen Kristallkegel (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)
* extrazellulär Kristallkegel (Paulus, 1974:124);

elongate (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (adj)

elongated Abd. 6 (Salmon, 1954 cited from Mari Mutt, 1979:542) : (n.)
see also elongated last abdominal segment ;

elongated last abdominal segment (Mari Mutt, 1979:542) : (n.)

elongated supraanal lobe (Denis, 1948 cited from Mari Mutt, 1979:542) : (n.)
see also elongated last abdominal segment ;

elongated tergum of the sixth abdominal segment (Carpenter, 1916 cited from Mari Mutt, 1979:542) : (n.)
see also elongated last abdominal segment ;

elongated valvula supraanalis (Börner, 1913 cited from Mari Mutt, 1979:542) : (n.)
see also elongated last abdominal segment ;

empodial appendage (Hopkin, 1997:48) : (n.)
* the lower part of the claw, arising from the pretarsus (Fjellberg, 1998:11);
synonym of empodium (sensu Maynard, 1951:289);
synonym of unguiculus (sensu Maynard, 1951:290);

empodial appendix (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (n.)
see also empodial appendage ;

Empodialanhang (G.) (Börner, 1906:4) : (n.)
synonym of untere Klaue (G.) (sensu Börner, 1906:=5);
see also empodial appendage ;

Empodium (G.) (Börner, 1906:4) : (n.)
see also empodium ;

empodium (Maynard, 1951:289) : (n.) (pl.: empodia) (adj.: empodial)
(ety.: from Lat. em = on; from Lat. podium, from Gr. podion, from Gr. podos = foot; Lat. suffix -ium, Gr. suffix -ion = diminutive; em-pod-i-um = on-foot-diminutive-noun = thing on small foot)
* externally raised projection of pedal tendon;
* inferior claw (Maynard, 1951:289);
synonym of unguiculus (sensu Maynard, 1951:290);

endocrine system (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:77) : (n.)

endocuticle (Dallai, 1974:317) : (n.)

endocuticular ring [of pseudocellus] (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.)

endoskeleton (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

endosquelette (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:96) : (n.)
see also endoskeleton ;

endosternite (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

endosternite antennaire (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:100,101) : (n.)
* comprend une plaque impaire dorsale d'où part un bras horizontal pair relié à la cuticule frontale par 2 muscles suspenseurs (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:100);

endosternite antérieur (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:100,101) : (n.)

endosternite postérieur (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:100,101) : (n.)

endosternum (Tuxen cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:276) : (n.) (adj.: endosternal)
see also tentorium (Adams & Salmon, 1972:=276);

entognathy (Hopkin, 1997:50) : (n.)
* the enclosure of the mandibles and maxilla into the head, concealed by the labrum, labium and the oral folds (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

enteucone crystalline cone (Paulus, 1974:128) : (n.)

enteukonen Kristallkegel (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)
* intrazellulär Kristallkegel (Paulus, 1974:124);
see also enteucone crystalline cone ;

entognathy (Dallai, 1974:148) : (n.)

entomobryiform male genital plate (Christiansen, 1958:474) : (n.)
* [the male genital plate of entomobryids] is unusual in that it normally forms a high dome (Christiansen, 1958:474);
see also male genital plate ;

entomoline (Packard, 1898:29) : (n.)
see also chitin (Packard, 1898:=29);

enveloping cell (Altner & Thies, 1972:196) : (n.)

epicranium (Packard, 1898:42) : (n.)
see also head capsule (Packard, 1898:42);

epicuticular (Dallai, 1974:313) : (adj)

epicuticular pattern (Dallai, 1974:313) : (n.)

epicuticle (Hopkin, 1997:53) : (n.)

epipharyngeal ganglia (Denis, 1928 cited from Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:342) : (n.)

epipharyngeal organ (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:342) : (n.)
see also epipharyngeal ganglia ;
* sensory organ, more precisely a contact chemoreceptor (Moulins, 1970 cited from Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:342);

epipharynx (Packard, 1898:42) : (n.)
* inner soft membrane of the labrum, usually provided with hairs and sense-papillae or cups (Packard, 1898:42);
* the under surface of the clypeus and labrum, forming the membranous roof of the mouth (Packard, 1898:43);

épipharynx (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95,101) : (n.)
see also epipharynx ;

epiproct (Lawrence, 1978:71) : (n.)
see also upper anal valve (Lawrence, 1978:=71);

epithelial cell (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

epithelium (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

epitoky (Hopkin, 1997:57,153) : (n.) (adj.: epitokous)
* ecomorphosis as part of a reproductive cycle (Hopkin, 1997:153);

erste Maxille (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)

ésophage (F.) (Nicolet, 1842:46) : (n.)
see also oesophagus ;

eucone ocellus (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)
* ocellus with crystalline cone (Maynard, 1951:6);

eugenital seta (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:30) : (n.) (pl.: eugenital setae)

eukonen Kristallkegel (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)
synonym of enteukonen Kristallkegel (G.) (sensu Paulus, 1974:124);
see also eucone ocellus ;

eupathidium (André, 1988:506) : (n.) (pl.: eupathidia)

euwhorled (Nayrolles, 1993:44) : (n.)
* an appendicular segment bearing obvious whorls (Nayrolles, 1993:44);

euwhorlation (Nayrolles, 1993:44) : (n.)
see also whorlation ;

eversible sac [of antennal apex] (Hopkin, 1997:67) : (n.)

exsertile antennal sac (Bourgeois, 1974:195) : (n.)

exocuticle (Dallai, 1974:313) : (n.)

exocuticular (Dallai, 1974:313) : (adj)

exoskeleton (Packard, 1898:28) : (n.)
see also integument (Packard, 1898:28);

external [maxillary] lobe (Fjellberg, 1984:84) : (n.)
see also maxillary outer lobe ;

external "mouth" (Fjellberg, 1984:83) : (n.)
* the labrum, pleural folds, maxillary outer lobes and labium (Fjellberg, 1984:84,85);

extra-acrosomial material [of spermatozoon] (Dallai, 1974:153) : (n.)

eye (Lubbock, 1873:55,57) : (n.)
* consist of distinct ocelli, collected together in a group on each side of the head, and generally situated on a dark patch (Lubbock, 1873:57);
see also ocellar spot ;

eye patch (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)
see also ocellar spot ;

F

fastigial (André, 1988:524) : (n.)

feeler (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (n.)
see also antenna ;

female genital plate (Barra, 2001:24) : (n.)
see also genital field ;

female subanal appendage (Zeppelini & Christiansen, 2003:36) : (n.)

femur (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.) (pl.: femora) (adj.: femoral)

fente génitale (F.) (Betsch-Pinot, 1974:272) : (n.)

Fiedern (G.) (Stummer-Traunfels, 1891 cited from Börner in Schultze, 1908:64) : (n.)
see also Lamelle der Maxille (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=64);

filament [of lamella of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:91) : (n.)
* denticles along the margins [of the lamella] developed to long filaments (Fjellberg, 1984:98);

file seta (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (n.) (pl.: file setae)

filter chamber (Adams & Salmon, 1972:278) : (n.)

filter region (Adams & Salmon, 1972:281) : (n.)

fingerlike process (Salmon, 1951 cited from Mari Mutt, 1979) : (n.)
see also elongated last abdominal segment ;

flagellum [of spermatozoon] (Dallai, 1974:149) : (n.) (pl.: flagella)

flexed [macrochaeta] (Mitra, 1984:102) : (adj)

flexed setae (Salmon, 1964:102) : (n.)
* setae have their apices bent over, flattened and strongly ciliated (Salmon, 1964:102);

foil (Potapov & Culik, 2002:70) : (n.)
see also foil-seta (Potapov & Culik, 2002:70);

foil-seta (Potapov & Culik, 2002:69) : (n.) (pl.: foil-setae)
* specific type of seta-like structure located only on the fourth abdominal segment (Potapov & Culik, 2002:70);

fold (Fjellberg, 1984:88) : (n.)
* labral structure;

foot (Lubbock, 1873:55,67,105,133) : (n.) (pl.: feet)
* the feet of Smynthurus(sic) are very peculiar, and differ in the different species (Lubbock, 1873:105);
* Nicolet [(1842)] has given two figures of a foot, seen from different sides; but neither of them agrees altogether with any of those examined by me (Lubbock, 1873:105);
* the feet [of Orchesella villosa] possess a tenent hair and two strong, though unequal, claws (Lubbock, 1873:133);
see also tarsus ;

foot complex (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:105) : (n.)

foramen (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.) (pl.: foramina)
* a hole in the body wall through which vessels or nerves pass. The foramen magnum is the central hole in the back of the head;

fore foot (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.)

fore gut (Adams & Salmon, 1972:279) : (n.)
* in which a buccal cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, crop and gizzard may be distinguished (Adams & Salmon, 1972:279);

foreclaw (Snider, 1989:544) : (n.)

foreleg (Snider, 1989:544) : (n.)

formation interfulcrale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:99,100,101) : (n.)

formation latéro-buccale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:100,101) : (n.)

foveae (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:5) : (n.)
* smooth areas in granulate cuticles; they may represent points of muscle attachment (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:5);

fringed [seta] (Folsom, 1937:7) : (adj)

frons (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (n.) (adj.: frontal)
* in between antennal attachements (Mitra, 1984:102);

frontal eye (Paulus, 1979 cited from Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:136) : (n.)
* Collembola typically retained four frontal ocelli, showing a primitive structure (Paulus, 1979 cited from Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:136);
see also ocellus (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:=136);

frontal line (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)
* a groove at the surface of the head capsule, in the form of an inverted Y on the frontal region; it is an ecdysial line (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135);
* a complete T-shaped sulcus, consisting of a posterior median line, the coronal suture, and two divergent branches, the frontal or postfrontal sutures (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135);

frontal sclerite (Goto, 1972 cited from Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)

frontal suture (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)
* divergent branch of the T-shaped frontal sulcus (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135);

frontoclypeal field (Fjellberg, 1998:9) : (n.)
* a region of the head situated between the base of the labrum and the antennal bases, set off from the labrum by a transverse incision (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

frontoclypeal setae (Fjellberg, 1998:9) : (n.)
* setae on the frontoclypeal field (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

fulcral arms (Hopkin, 1997:51) : (n.)

fulcre (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (n.)
see also fulcrum ;
* est une bandelette de renforcement de la poche maxillaire c'est-à-dire d'un dérivé atrial ecdodermique (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:98);

fulcre maxillo-labial (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)
see also fulcre maxillo-labiaux ;

fulcre maxillo-labiaux (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:99) : (n.)
see also fulcre ;

fulcrum (Hopkin, 1997:49,51) : (n.) (pl.: fulcra)
* The two long posterior processes of the tentorium (Adams & Salmon, 1972:276);
see also tentorium ;

fultura (François, 1971:45) : (n.) (pl.: fulturae)
see also fulcrum (François, 1971:=45);

furca (Willems, 1900:10) : (n.) (adj.: furcal)
* l'appareil du saut (Willems, 1900:10);
* the jumping organ, consisting of the basal manubrium and two arms, each consisting of a dens and a mucro (Fjellberg, 1998:11);
* in the resting position, flexed forward and held in position by the retinaculum (Fjellberg, 1998:13);
synonym of furcula (sensu Maynard, 1951:=289);
see also spring (Maynard, 1951:=7);

furcal area (Kaprus, Weiner & Pomorski, 2002:353) : (n.)

furcal segment (Folsom, 1937:6) : (n.)

furcal setae (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

furcal subcoxa (Potapov & Culik, 2002:70) : (n.)

furcula (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* The organ borne by the fourth or fifth [= error!] abdominal segment and used for leaping; the furcula is considered to be in normal position when lying along the ventral side of the body and pointed cephalad, and its dorsal and ventral sides are considered as taken in this position; as a matter of convenience, the drawings are often made with furcula extended, in which the ventral side turns dorsad and vice versa (Guthrie, 1903:23);
* a midventral appendage of the fourth abdominal segment (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:19);
synonym of furca (sensu Maynard, 1951:=7);

fusiform (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:50) : (adj)

fusion (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)
synonym of ankylosis (sensu Maynard, 1951:=6);

G

galea (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.) (pl.: galeae)
* elongate process of the maxilla (Börner, 1908 cited from Carpenter, 1921:261);
* the outer apical lobe of the maxilla, articulated basally with the stipes;

ganglion sous-oesophagien (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

gena (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.) (pl.: genae) (adj.: genal)
* the cheek (Maynard, 1951:6);

generatrix (Nayrolles, 1993:44) : (n.) (pl.: generatrices)
* a row of setae along an appendix. Fundamentally, there are 8 generatrices: external, anterior-external, anterior, anterior-internal, internal, posterior-internal, posterior and posterior-external (Nayrolles, 1993:44);

genital aperture (Fjellberg, 1998:13) : (n.)
* opening of the reproductive system on the ventral side of the fifth abdominal segment (Fjellberg, 1998:13);

genital field (Fjellberg, 1998:13) : (n.)
* female genital aperture with two transversely arranged lips with 2+2 setae (Fjellberg, 1998:13);
see also genital plate ;

genital opening (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)

genital orifice (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:177) : (n.)

genital papilla (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* a papilla noticeable in the Sminthuridae upon which opens the genital aperture (Guthrie, 1903:23);
* roundish male genital aperture with a dense covering of setae in a circular arrangement (Fjellberg, 1998:13);

genital plate (Christiansen, 1958:474) : (n.)
* a specialized plate surrounding the gonopore; typically [this] plate consists of a slightly domed oval to kidney-shaped flap of integument bearing the gonopore somewhere within it (Christiansen, 1958:474);

genital segment (Folsom, 1937:5) : (n.)

genital slit (Betsch-Pinot, 1974:272) : (n.)

genitalia (Moen & Ellis, 1984:197) : (n.)

gizzard (Adams & Salmon, 1972:277) : (n.)

gladiform (Loring & Snider, 1983:188) : (adj)

gladiform seta (Nayrolles, 1993:46) : (n.)
* a rather short and thick seta looking like a two-edged sword (Nayrolles, 1993:46);

glandular base (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:103) : (n.)

globular labial gland (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

glossa (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VI) : (n.) (pl.: glossae)
* The paired, fused, median lobe of the labium articulated basally with the prementum;

glycocalyx (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

glycogen (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

gnathal segment (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

Golgi body (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.) (pl.: Golgi bodies)

gonopore (Christiansen, 1958:474) : (n.)

grain (Kaprus, Weiner & Pomorski, 2002:353) : (n.)

grains primaires (F.) (Massoud, 1969 cited from Paulus, 1971:37) : (n.)
see also primary granule ;

grains secondaires (F.) (Massoud, 1969 cited from Paulus, 1971:37) : (n.)
see also secondary granule ;

granular [lobe of postantennal organ] (Dallai, 1971:12) : (adj)

granulate (André, 1988:508) : (adj)

granulation (Smolis & Skarzynski, 2004:4) : (n.)

granule (Hopkin, 1997:51) : (n.)

granulous (de Mendonça & Fernandes, 2003:5) : (adj)

great abdomen (Stach, 1945:7) : (n.)
* the anterior part of the constricted abdomen of Symphypleona (Heckman, 2000:12);
see also abdomen ;

groove (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)
* a linear impression on a sclerite;

ground colour (Mitra, 1984:102) : (n.)

guard sensillum (Smolis & Skarzynski, 2004:4) : (n.) (pl.: guard sensilla)

guard setae (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:9) : (n.)
* modified setae, located beside and just behind the organ on the third antennal segment (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:9);

guard setae (Fjellberg, 1998:9) : (n.)
* seta-like projections of the labial palp (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

gut (Willem, 1900 cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:277) : (n.)

H

habitus (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:105) : (n.)

hair (Lubbock, 1873:55) : (n.)
* generally speaking, parallel sided and not tapering normally long and flexible [cuticular] structure (Salmon, 1964:102);

hair-like process [of sublobal plate] (Fjellberg, 1984:83) : (n.)

hair-like structure [of maxillary palp] (Fjellberg, 1984:84) : (n.)
* long "hair" [that] differs from ordinary setae by absence of the basal socket (Fjellberg, 1984:84);
* probably it has a sensory function (Goto, 1972 cited from Fjellberg, 1984:84);

hair lumen [of spatula-hair] (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:52,55) : (n.)

hair sensillum (Snider & Loring, 1984:35) : (n.)

hair shaft [of spatula-hair] (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:55) : (n.)

hairbase (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:51) : (n.)

hamula (Hopkin, 1997:72) : (n.)
see also tenaculum (Hopkin, 1997:=72);

Hauptauge (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)

Hauptpigmentzellen (G.) (Paulus, 1974:126) : (n.)
see also primary pigment cell ;

Haut gefeldert (G.) (Börner, 1901, 1902 cfr. Folsom, 1937:7) : (n.)
see also integument reticulate ;

head (Lubbock, 1873:55) : (n.)
* the anterior tagma of the body;
* it bears the antennae, the eyes and the mouth-organs (Lubbock, 1873:55);

head capsule (Packard, 1898:28) : (n.)
* the primitive segments of the head are fused together and have almost entirely lost their individuality (Packard, 1898:28);

heel [of mucro] (Moen & Ellis, 1984:197) : (n.)
see also lamellose ridge [of mucro] (Moen & Ellis, 1984:197);

hétérochaetose (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:305) : (n.)
* tendant à accentuer la différence de longueur entre les soies et conduisant à la formation de microchètes et de macrochètes à disposition fixe (Cassagnau, 1974:305);
see also heterochaetosis ;

heterochaetosis (Cassagnau, 1974:311) : (n.)
* a differentiation of the hair cover in micro- and macrochaeta that become more and more dissimilar (Cassagnau, 1974:311);

heteronomous (Packard, 1898:26) : (adj)
* of unequal size and shape (Packard, 1898:26);

hind foot (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.)

hind-body (Packard, 1898:26) : (n.)
see also abdomen (Packard, 1898:26);

homochaetose (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:304) : (n.)
* recouvrement primitif a du être constitué au départ par des soies courtes toutes identiques (Cassagnau, 1974:304);
see also homochaetosis ;

homochaetosis (Cassagnau, 1974:311) : (n.)
* a homonomous structure of three transversal rows of short, identical setae (Cassagnau, 1974:311);

Hüft (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)

Hüftglieder (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)

Hüftkörper der Maxille (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)

hyaline (Wang, Chen & Christiansen, 2003:242) : (adj)

hypodermic pigment (Smolis, 2001:413) : (n.)

hypodermis (Packard, 1898:28) : (n.)
* an epithelial layer of cells (Packard, 1898:28);

hypognathous (Maynard, 1951:5) : (adj)
* with the head more or less at a right angle to the plane of the body (vertical), so the mouthparts are directed ventrally;
* having the mouth parts directed more or less vertically ventral (Maynard, 1951:289);
* mouth parts being directed downward, nearly perpendicular to the body axis (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:134);

hypopharyngeal brachia (Imms, 1964 cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:276) : (n.)
* The two long posterior processes of the tentorium (Adams & Salmon, 1972:276);
see also tentorium ;

hypopharynx (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63,Tafel VI) : (n.)
* arises medially in the floor of the buccal cavity but divides and extends forward as two distinct lobes terminating just within the anterior margin of the labium (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274);
* lingua et superlangues (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:99);
* the 'bottom' of the buccal cavity (Fjellberg, 1998:11);
see also glossa (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=Tafel VI);

I

incisor (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

inferior (Maynard, 1951:289) : (adj)

inferior claw (Folsom, 1902:92) : (n.)
* the smaller claw of the collembolan foot, absent in some of the lower genera (Guthrie, 1903:23);

inferior valve [of anal papilla] (Snider & Loring, 1984:38) : (n.)

Innenglieder der Maxille (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)
see also stipes (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=63);

Innenlade (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)
see also lacinia (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=62);

Innenlade + Stipes (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII) : (n.)
* 1. Coxalglied der 1. Maxille (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII);

inner appendage [of tarsus] (Lubbock, 1873:122) : (n.)
see also inner claw ;
see also unguiculus ;

inner claw (Lubbock, 1873:109) : (n.)
* on the underside of the tarsus [of Smynthurus(sic)] is a second claw, smaller and more slender than the first. At its free end it is produced into two processes and a small spine; the shorter process reaches about as far as the free end of the other organ, and is like a spine in form, though apparently not so stiff; the second process is somewhat longer, and whip-like (Lubbock, 1873:105);
synonym of inferior claw (sensu Guthrie, 1903:=23);
see also claw ;
see also unguiculus ;

inner enveloping cell (Altner & Thies, 1972:196) : (n.)

inner lamella [of mucro] (Folsom, 1937:3) : (n.)

inner thickening of stipes (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)

innere ventralen Lamellen [der Maxillenkopf] (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:64) : (n.)

innervation des corpora allata (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:70) : (n.)

instar (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.)

integument (Packard, 1898:28) : (n.)
* consists primarily of an epithelial layer of cells (Packard, 1898:28);

integument reticulate (Folsom, 1937:7) : (n.)
* kind of integument which is smooth externally but with an underlying network dividing the integument into minute polygonal areas (Folsom, 1937:7);

integumental annulation (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (n.)

integumentary granulation (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:173) : (n.)

integumentary protuberance (Richards, 1968 cited from Nayrolles, 1993:47) : (n.)

interarticular membrane (Packard, 1898:33) : (n.)
see also intersegmental membrane ;

intercalary appendage (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

intercalary segment (Hopkin, 1997:142,145) : (n.)

interconnecting ridge (Hopkin, 1997:55) : (n.)

intergeneratrix (Nayrolles, 1993:44) : (n.) (pl.: intergeneratrices)
* a setal row between two generatrices (Nayrolles, 1993:44);
see also generatrix ;

intermediate foot (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.)

internal endo-nuclear cylinder [of spermatozoon] (Dallai, 1974:153) : (n.)

interocular (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (adj)

intersegment (Folsom, 1937:5) : (n.)

intersegment (F.) (Willem, 1900:19) : (n.)

intersegmental constriction (Folsom, 1937:4) : (n.)

intersegmental fold (Packard, 1898:31) : (n.)
* thin portion of the skin, folded inward between each segment (Packard, 1898:31);
see also intersegmental membrane (Packard, 1898:31);

intersegmental membrane (Packard, 1898:30) : (n.)

interwhorl (Nayrolles, 1993:44) : (n.)
see also whorl ;

intestin grèle (F.) (Nicolet, 1842:46) : (n.)

intestinal canal (Von Olfers cited from Lubbock, 1873:74) : (n.)
* a straight tube passing directly from one end of the body to the other, and falling into three divisions, the oesophagus, the ventriculus, and the rectum (Lubbock, 1873:74);
see also digestive organs ;
see also oesophagus ;
see also ventriculus ;
see also rectum ;

intestinal tract (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

intestine (Lubbock, 1873:75) : (n.)

J

jabot (F.) (Nicolet, 1842:46) : (n.)

jaw (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (n.)

joint membrane (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:51) : (n.)

jugal (André, 1988:508) : (n.)

jugal area (André, 1988:509) : (n.)

K

Kopfstück des Stipes (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)

Kralle (G.) (Schött, 1891:9) : (n.)
see also claw ;

Kralle der Maxille (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:64) : (n.)
see also ungulum ;

Kralle des Stipes (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)

Krallenglied, Krallenglieder (G.) (Schött, 1891:8) : (n.)
see also tarsus ;

Kristallkegel (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)
see also crystalline cone ;

L

labial appendage (Wang, Chen & Christiansen, 2003:241) : (n.)

labial cleft (Adams & Salmon, 1972:272) : (n.)

labial gland (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

labial margin (Adams & Salmon, 1972:272) : (n.)

labial palp (Adams & Salmon, 1972:272) : (n.)
* A pair of palps are situated antero-laterally on the labium close to the sides of the buccal opening. These are each provided with strong, curved setae, small processes, some two-segmented (after Adams & Salmon, 1972:274);
* the apical section of the labium, bearing a complex set of papillae, sensilla, setae and guard setae (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

labial segment (Hopkin, 1997:47,142,145) : (n.)

labial sternum (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

labial suture (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

labial tergum (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

labial triangle (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:40) : (n.)

labial vental groove (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:40) : (n.)

labium (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.) (adj.: labial)
* a paired structure situated ventro-apically on each side of the head mid-line (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

labral edge (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274) : (n.)
* This edge projects beyond the rim of the labium forming a roof-like structure (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274);
see also mouth opening ;

labral formula (Potapov & Culik, 2002:69) : (n.)

labral intrusion (Wang, Christiansen & Chen, 2002:63) : (n.)

labral papillae (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:104) : (n.)

labral segment (Hopkin, 1997:47) : (n.)

labre (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:93,101) : (n.)
see also labrum ;

labro-labial cleft (Adams & Salmon, 1972:272) : (n.)

labrum (Lubbock, 1873:65) : (n.) (adj.: labral)
* a simple, entire, quadrate, horny lobe, somewhat broader at the base than at the apex, with a few scattered hairs, and on the front margin a row of teeth or minute bristles at a little distance from the free border (Lubbock, 1873:65);
* an unpaired flap-like piece hinged to the front edge of the clypeus, forming the roof of the anterior part of the mouth (Packard, 1898:42);
* a broadly triangular plate which covers the internal mouthparts on the dorso-anterior side of the head (Fjellberg, 1998:9);
* the anterior, medial appendage of the mouthparts attached to the underside of the clypeus;

lacina (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.) (pl.: laciniae)
* the inner apical lobe of the maxilla, articulated to the stipes;

lacinia (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)

lacinial head [of maxilla] (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.)

lame dorsale de la formation latéro-buccale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

lame ventrale de la formation latéro-buccale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

lamella (Folsom, 1937:3) : (n.) (pl.: lamellae) (adj.: lamellar, lamellate)

lamella [of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)

lamella 1 [of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)
* always the longest lamella (Fjellberg, 1984:90);
see also median appendage [of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:=90);

lamella 2 [of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)
* ventral lamella (Fjellberg, 1984:90);

lamella 3 [of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)
* ventral lamella (Fjellberg, 1984:90);

lamella 4 [of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)
* dorsal lamella (Fjellberg, 1984:90);

lamella 5 [of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)
* dorsal lamella (Fjellberg, 1984:90);

lamella 6 [of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)
* pad-shaped lamella (Fjellberg, 1984:90);
see also median subsidiary appendage [of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:=90);

lamellate (Folsom, 1937:3) : (adj)

Lamelle der Maxille (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:64) : (n.)

lamellose ridge [of mucro] (Moen & Ellis, 1984:197) : (n.)

lamina (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:51) : (n.) (pl.: laminae) (adj.: laminate)
* A thin plate or leaf-like process;

laminar laterobuccal formation (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

lanceolate (Folsom, 1902:92) : (adj)

lanceolate [seta] (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (adj)

large abdomen (Soto-Adames, 2002:103) : (n.)

large claw (Lubbock, 1873:133) : (n.)
see also unguis ;

lasiothrichium (Mari Mutt, 1978:44) : (n.) (pl.: lasiothrichia)
* long, ciliated, wavy sensory hairs (Salmon, 1964:102);

lateral : (adj)
* toward or at the side of the body, or the side margin or edge of a structure;

lateral (André, 1988:524) : (n.)

lateral eye (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)
* composed of maximum 8 separate ommatidia (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135);

laterale dorsale Lamelle [der Maxillenkopf] (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII) : (n.)

laterale ventrale Lamelle [der Maxillenkopf] (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII) : (n.)

lateral sensory rod (André, 1988:523) : (n.)

lateral tubercles (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

latéro-buccale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:94) : (n.)

lateroproximal (André, 1988:524) : (n.)

Laufbeine (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)
see also leg ;

leg (Lubbock, 1873:55,67) : (n.)
* a paired thoracic appendage;
* consisting of subcoxa 1, subcoxa 2, coxa, trochanter, femur, tibiotarsus and claw (Fjellberg, 1998:11);

length (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* is reckoned from the most cephalic part of the head when held in natural position, to the caudal end of the abdomen, not to the tip of the extended furcula (Guthrie, 1903:23);

lens (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)
synonym of crystalline cone (sensu Maynard, 1951:=6);

lenticular organ (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:40) : (n.)

lèvre génitale (F.) (Betsch-Pinot, 1974:272) : (n.)

ligament mandibulaire (F.) (François, 1971:46) : (n.)
see also sclérite dorsale du pli oral (François, 1971:=46);

ligament maxillaire (F.) (François, 1971:46) : (n.)
see also sclérite ventrale du pli oral (François, 1971:=46);

ligula (L.) (Willems, 1900:15) : (n.)

limb (Packard, 1898:35) : (n.)
see also leg ;

linea ventralis (Dallai, 1974:148) : (n.)
see also ventral line (Fjellberg, 1998:=11);

lingua (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.) (pl.: linguae)
* the tongue (Maynard, 1951:6);
* The lower lobe of the hypopharynx lies along the floor of the buccal cavity (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274);

lobe [of postantennal organ] (Dallai, 1971:12) : (n.)

lobed [postantennal organ] (Dallai, 1971:12) : (adj)

lobus externus (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)

lobus internus (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)
see also Maxillenkopf (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=63);

lobus praecoxalis (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (n.)

longitudinal (Packard, 1898:30) : (adj)

longitudinal vessel (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:347) : (n.)
see also dorsal vessel ;

lower appendage [of tarsus] (Lubbock, 1873:125) : (n.)
* the lower appendage [of Papirius ornatus] is rather thicker than in P. fuscus, and the filament, E, is somewhat shorter (Lubbock, 1873:125);
see also lower claw ;

lower claw (Lubbock, 1873:190) : (n.)
see also inner claw ;

lower lip (Lubbock, 1873:65) :
see also labium ;

M

m-row [of setae] (Moen & Ellis, 1984:195) : (n.)

macrochaeta (Mitra, 1974:323) : (n.) (pl.: macrochaetae)
* really long setae (Nayrolles, 1993:46);

macrochaetotaxy (Soto-Adames, 2002:78) : (n.)

macrofolds of filter chamber (Adams & Salmon, 1972:278) : (n.)

maculation (Loring & Snider, 1983:185) : (n.)

major tubercle [of cuticle] (Noble-Nesbitt, 1963 cited from Dallai, 1974:313) : (n.)

male genital papilla (Moen & Ellis, 1984:198) : (n.)
see also male genital plate ;

male genital plate (Christiansen, 1958:474-476) : (n.)
see also genital plate ;

male ventral organ (Pomorski, 2002:459) : (n.)
* four thickened setae situated on posterior edge of abdominal sternum III, and four of the same kind on anterior edge of abdominal sternum IV (Pomorski, 2002:459);
* four thickened setae situated on posterior edge of abdominal sternum II, two similar setae in the middle of abdominal sternum III, and two setae on the anterior part of abdominal sternum IV (Pomorski, 2002:461);
* 22-36 small setulae situated in a pocket between abdominal sternum III and IV (Pomorski, 2002:465);
* four thickened setae situated on posterior edge of abdominal sternum II (Pomorski, 2002:468);

Malpighian tubules (Dallai & Callaini, 1979:45) : (n.)
see also vaisseaux hépatiques (F.) ;

mandible (Lubbock, 1873:65) : (n.) (adj.: mandibular)
* long and somewhat cylindrical, with a large gaping orifice, through which the muscles pass into the head (Lubbock, 1873:65);

mandibula (Moen & Ellis, 1984:194) : (n.)

mandibular apical teeth (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)

mandibular cavity (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)

mandibular condyle (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (n.)

mandibular gland (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

mandibular molar plate (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)

mandibular plate (Hopkin, 1997:52) : (n.)
see also mandibular molar plate ;

mandibular segment (Hopkin, 1997:47,142,145) : (n.)

mandibular suspension (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)

mandibular teeth (Hopkin, 1997:52) : (n.)
see also mandibular apical teeth ;

mandibular tergum (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

mandibule (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)
see also mandible ;

manubrial base (Hopkin, 1997:72) : (n.)

manubrial hook (Folsom, 1937:6) : (n.)

manubrial plaque (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:40) : (n.)

manubrial plate (Moen & Ellis, 1984:201) : (n.)

manubrial teeth (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (n.)

manubrial thickening (Fjellberg, 1998:13) : (n.)
* a ventro-apical cuticular thickening of the manubrium (Fjellberg, 1998:13);

manubrium (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* the basal piece of the furcula, joined by its proximal end to the abdomen and at its distal end to the two dentes (Guthrie, 1903:23);

maxilla (Lubbock, 1873:65) : (n.) (pl.: maxillae) (adj.: maxillary)
* the paired appendage of the mouthparts between the mandible and the labium, consisting of the capitulum connected with 3 articulating arms: stipes, cardo and fulcrum (Fjellberg, 1998:11);

maxilla head (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)
see also capitulum (Hopkin, 1997:=49);

maxilla head apodeme (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)

Maxillarpalpus (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII) : (n.)

Maxillarstipes (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)

maxillary capitulum (Massoud & Ellis, 1974:298) : (n.)
see also maxillary head ;

maxillary head (Fjellberg, 1984:89) : (n.)
see also maxilla head ;
see also capitulum (Fjellberg, 1984:=90);

maxillary outer lobe (Fjellberg, 1984:83) : (n.)
* located on each side of the head near the base of the labrum; it forms an integrated part of the external "mouth", lying on either side of the labrum distal to the pleural folds (Fjellberg, 1984:83-84);
* the basal part of the lobe continues inside the head where it articulates with the basal shaft (stipes) of the maxilla; the external lobe terminates in a long hair-like structure set on the tip of a prominent papilla (Fjellberg, 1984:84);
* located on each side of the labral base; basally they abutt the oral folds and laterally touch the labium; inside the head capsule, they are attached to the maxillary stipes (Fjellberg, 1998:9);
* arises from the mid-section of the stipes (Fjellberg, 1998:11);

maxillary palp (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:8) : (n.)
* papilla with apical bristles, between the antennae and mouth region (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:8);
* the external [maxillary outer] lobe terminates in a long hair-like structure set on the tip of a prominent papilla (Fjellberg, 1984:84);
* a projecting papilla on the maxillary outer lobe with a long terminal hair, homologous to the labial papillae (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

maxillary segment (Hopkin, 1997:47,142,145) : (n.)

maxillary tooth (Fjellberg, 1984:91) : (n.) (pl.: maxillary teeth)

maxillary tergum (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

maxille (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)
see also maxilla ;

Maxillenkopf (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VI) : (n.)

maxillula (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.) (pl.: maxillulae)

Maxillule (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII) : (n.)
see also paraglossa (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII);
see also superlingua (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII);

mechanoreceptor (Dallai, 1971:22) : (n.)

mechanosensitive material [of sensory peg] (Altner & Ernst, 1974:122) : (n.)

medial (Potapov & Culik, 2002:70) : (adj)
* toward or at the center, or central area or line, of the body or structure;

median appendage [of capitulum] (Goto, 1972 cited from Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)

median eye (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:136) : (n.)
see also ocellus (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:=136);

median subsidiary appendage [of capitulum] (Goto, 1972 cited from Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)

median groove [of spatula-hair] (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:54) : (n.)

mediolongitudinal groove (Hopkin, 1997:142) : (n.)

mentum (Fjellberg, 1998:9) : (n.)
* the baso-lateral section of the labium (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

mesenteron (Thibaud, 1970:151) : (n.)
* medial intestinal canal, running from stomodeal valvula to the pyloric valvula (Thibaud, 1970:151);

meso- : (prefix)
* a Greek prefix meaning middle or mid; used with Latin, latinized, or Greek words to indicate the middle (often second) part of a structure;

meso-coxa (Snider & Loring, 1984:37,39) : (n.) (pl.: meso-coxae)

mesocana (Loring & Snider, 1983:188) : (n.)

mesochaeta (Nayrolles, 1993:46) : (n.) (pl.: mesochaetae)
* ordinary pointed seta (Nayrolles, 1993:46);

mesoclaw (Snider, 1989:544) : (n.)

mesocuticle (Dallai, 1974:317) : (n.)
synonym of exocuticle (sensu Dallai, 1974:=317);

mesofemur (Loring & Snider, 1983:188) : (n.) (pl.: mesofemora)

mesoleg (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (n.)

mesonotum (Folsom, 1937:7) : (n.)
* the dorsal part of the mesothorax;

mesosternum (Moen & Ellis, 1984:201) : (n.)
* sternum of the mesothorax;

mesothorax (Lubbock, 1873:67) : (n.)
* second thoracic segment (Maynard, 1951:290);

mesotibiotarsus (Loring & Snider, 1983:188) : (n.) (pl.: mesotibiotarsi)

mesotrochanter (Loring & Snider, 1983:188) : (n.)

meta- : (prefix)
* a Greek prefix meaning hind or posterior; used with Latin, latinized, or Greek words to indicate the posterior (usually third) part of a structure;

meta-coxa (Snider & Loring, 1984:38) : (n.) (pl.: meta-coxae)

meta-femur (Snider & Loring, 1984:38) : (n.) (pl.: meta-femora)

meta-tibiotarsis[sic] (Snider & Loring, 1984:40) : (n.)
see also meta-tibiotarsus ;

meta-tibiotarsus (Snider & Loring, 1984:38) : (n.) (pl.: meta-tibotarsi)

metacoxa (Loring & Snider, 1983:189) : (n.) (pl.: metacoxae)

metafemur (Loring & Snider, 1983:189) : (n.) (pl.: metafemora)

metaleg (Loring & Snider, 1983:185) : (n.)

metamere (Packard, 1898:30) : (n.)
* an embryonic body segment (Snodgrass, 1935);
see also segment (Packard, 1898:=30);

metamerism (Packard, 1898:30) : (n.)

metathorax (Lubbock, 1873:67) : (n.)
* third thoracic segment (Maynard, 1951:290);

metatibiotarsus (Loring & Snider, 1983:189) : (n.) (pl.: metatibiotarsi)

metatrochanter (Loring & Snider, 1983:189) : (n.)

metatrochanteral organ (Zeppelini & Christiansen, 2003:36) : (n.)

microacanthoid (Nayrolles, 1993:46) : (n.)
* spine-like microchaeta (Nayrolles, 1993:46);

microchaeta (Nayrolles, 1993:46) : (n.) (pl.: microchaetae)
* really short setae (Nayrolles, 1993:46);

microfolds of filter chamber (Adams & Salmon, 1972:278) : (n.)

microsensillae[sic] (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:27) : (n.)
see also microsensillum ;

microsensillum (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:28) : (n.) (pl.: microsensilla)

microseta (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:41) : (n.) (pl.: microsetae)

microtubercle (Hopkin, 1997:53) : (n.)
see also primary triangular granule (Hopkin, 1997:=53);

microtubule (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

microvillus (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.) (pl.: microvilli)

middle cuticle (Dallai, 1974:317) : (n.)
see also exocuticle ;

mid-gut (Adams & Salmon, 1972:278) : (n.)

midgut (Paclt, 1956 cited from Dallai & Callaini, 1979:45) : (n.)

midgut epithelium (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

midgut posterior cell (Dallai & Callaini, 1979:46-48) : (n.)
* there are from two to three cells in longitudinal sections of the posterior region of the midgut which show some differences with respect to the neighbouring midgut cells. These cells are bent so that their microvilli point posteriorly. The cells form a concavity in which the connecting cells of the pyloric region are located (Dallai & Callaini, 1979:46);

mid intestine (Denis cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:277) : (n.)

minor abdomen (Heckman, 2000:12) : (n.)
see also small abdomen (Heckman, 2000:12);

minor tubercle [of cuticle] (Noble-Nesbitt, 1963 cited from Dallai, 1974:313) : (n.)
see also microtubercle (Hopkin, 1997:=55);

mitochondria [of cell] (Dallai, 1974:149) : (n.)

mixocoele (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:98) : (n.)

molar (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)
see also molar surface ;

molar area (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.)

molar plate (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)

molar surface (Lubbock, 1873:65) : (n.)
* a raised surface on the mandible at some distance from the teeth which is covered with minute, rather blunt teeth, and, in conjunction with the corresponding portion of the opposite mandible, evidently serves the function of mastication;

molt (Altner & Thies, 1972:196) : (n.)

morphology (André, 1988:505) : (n.)
* general appearance, shape and size of things (André, 1988:505);

morphotype (Bourgeois, 1974:195) : (n.)

Mittelanhang [der Maxillenkopf] (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:64) : (n.)
* centralen gestielten Bürstenanhang der Maxillenkopf (Börner in Schultze, 1908:64);

moult (Hopkin, 1997:57) : (n.)

mouth (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)

mouth opening (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274) : (n.)
* In anterior view, it is slit-like and deeply cleft, both ventrally by the labial cleft and laterally by the labro-labial cleft. It is bordered by wavy chitinisation, which is heavier and more deeply folded on the labral edge (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274);

mouth parts (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)

mouth region (Fjellberg, 1984:85) : (n.)

mouth-organs (Lubbock, 1873:55) : (n.)
see also mouth-parts ;

mouth-parts (Lubbock, 1873:63) : (n.)

mouthparts (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)

mucro (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.) (pl.: mucrones) (adj.: mucronal)
* (mucrones) the two small end pieces of the furcula proceeding from the two dentes (Guthrie, 1903:23);
* the apical segment of an arm of the furca (Fjellberg, 1998:10);

mucrodens (Folsom, 1937:15) : (n.) (pl.: mucrodentes)
* the dens and mucro fused (Heckman, 2000:13);

mucrodens complex (Mitra, 1984:105) : (n.)

mucronal seta (Moen & Ellis, 1984:197) : (n.)

mucronal spine (Soto-Adames, 2002:81) : (n.)

mucrone (Mitra, 1984:106) : (n.)
see also mucro ;

multisetaceous entomobryiform male genital plate (Christiansen, 1958:474) : (n.)
* [entomobryiform male genital plate bearing] a large number of acuminate, smooth setae to be scattered more or less uniformly over most of the surface of the organ (Christiansen, 1958:474);
see also entomobryiform male genital plate ;

muscle de l'endosternite antennaire à l'endosternite postérieur (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

muscle relais (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

N

neosminthurid seta (Snider, 1989:541) : (n.) (pl.: neosminthurid setae)

neosminthuroid seta (Betsch, 1980:33-35) : (n.) (pl.: neosminthuroid setae)
* soies allongées, généralement couvertes de petits spicules écailleux, parfois plumeuses, appliquées contre la paroi du corps [et ne présentant pas l'anneau sclérifié qui entoure le point d'insertion des soies normales] (Snider, 1968 cited from Betsch, 1980:33);
* une soie néosminthuroïde est appliquée sur une longueur plus ou moins grande, au tégument. Parfois seule une petite pointe(environ 1/20) de la longueur totale de la soie) est libre. L'embasse, de ce fait, est très allongée et est entourée par une rangée de grains primaires. La face externe de cette soie appliquée au tégument est couverte de petites excroissances écailleuses, dentées (Betsch, 1980:33,35);

neotrichous seta (André, 1988:515) : (n.)

neotrichous genital seta (André, 1988:525) : (n.)

nephridial organ (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:345) : (n.)

nerf antennaire (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

nerf de Leydig (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:63,77) : (n.)

nerf d'Hoffmann (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

nerf hypo-pharyngien (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

nerf intercalaire (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:63,77) : (n.)

nerf labial (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

nerf mandibulaire (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

nerf maxillaire (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

nerf oculaire (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

nervi corporis cardiaci (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:61) : (n.)

nervi corporis cardiaci 1 (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

nervi corporis cardiaci 2 (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

nervus parallelus (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)

neurohaemeral organ (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)
see also neurohemal organ ;

neurohemal organ (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:77) : (n.)
* primitive type of neurosecretory organ without proper secretory cells (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:77);

neurosecretion system (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:77) : (n.)

neurosecretory system (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:77) : (n.)

nipple [of cornea surface] (Bernhard, Gemme & Sällström, 1970 cited from Paulus, 1971:42) : (n.)
* derived epicuticular ultrastructure that improves vision in shallow light conditions (Paulus, 1971:42);

nondentate [unguiculus] (Mitra, 1984:105) : (adj)

nonfurcate (Fjellberg, 1984:88) : (adj)

nonpedicellate [scale] (Mitra, 1984:102) : (adj)

NP-sensillum (André, 1988:505) : (n.) (pl.: NP-sensilla)
* sensillum with no pores (André, 1988:505);

nucleus [of cell] (Dallai, 1974:149) : (n.)

O

Oberkralle (G.) (Schött, 1891:8) : (n.) (pl.: Oberkrallen)
see also unguis (Schött, 1891:8);

obtuse (de Mendonça & Fernandes, 2003:2) : (adj)

occipital foramen (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

occiput : (n.) (adj.: occipital)
* the posterior part of the head behind the vertex dorsally and the genae laterally. If the an occipital carina is present, the occiput is the area between it and the very narrow postocciput surrounding the foramen magnum;

ocellar area (Thibaud, 1970:193) : (n.)

ocellar field (Mitra, 1984:104) : (n.)

ocellar spot (Fjellberg, 1998:9) : (n.)
* a pigmented spot on each side of the head, each of which has 8 ocelli present as single lenses (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

ocellus (Lubbock, 1873:57) : (n.) (pl.: ocelli)
* a simple eye (Maynard, 1951:290);
* an ocellus is formed from fused ommatidia (Hopkin, 1997:69);

ocular plate (Dallai, 1971:11) : (n.)

ocular setae (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:30) : (n.)

ocular tubercles (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

oesophage (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:62,77) : (n.)
see also oesophagus ;

oesophagus (Lubbock, 1873:74) : (n.)
* rather long, narrow, and composed of an inner chitinous membrane thrown more or less into folds, and a cellular envelope, outside which, again, is a loose and very delicate membrane (Lubbock, 1873:74);

ommatidium (Paulus, 1974:123,132) : (n.) (pl.: ommatidia)
* es besteht aus einem dioptrischen Apparat, der eine Cornea und einn Kristallkegel aufweist; es besitzt eine Retina (Paulus, 1974:130);

ommine (Bouthier & Thibaud, 1974:105) : (n.)

ommochrome (Bouthier & Thibaud, 1974:105) : (n.)

ommochromic pigment (Bouthier & Thibaud, 1974:105) : (n.)

ommochromic pigmentation (Bouthier & Thibaud, 1974:105) : (n.)

opening of the reproductive organs (Carpenter, 1921:262) : (n.)
* a somewhat cruciform slit in a delicate plate beset with numerous short hairs (Carpenter, 1921:262);

oral fold (Fjellberg, 1998:9) : (n.)
* simple outgrowth of the head capsule (Fjellberg, 1998:9);
synonym of plica orales ;
* subgenal folds, homologous to the paratergal lobes of postcephalic segments (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135);

organ prostemmatique (F.) (Laboulbéne, 1864:711 cited from Lubbock, 1873:56) : (n.)
see also postantennal organ (Lubbock, 1873:=56);

organ ante-oculaire (F.) (Laboulbéne, 1864:711 cited from Lubbock, 1873:56) : (n.)
see also postantennal organ (Lubbock, 1873:=56);

organe neurohémal (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:60,77) : (n.)

organite of antenna IV (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)
see also sensillum (Smolis & Skarzynski, 2004:=9);

organum postantennalis (Moen & Ellis, 1984:199) : (n.)
synonym of postantennal organ (sensu Moen & Ellis, 1984:=199);

orthognathous (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:134) : (adj)
synonym of hypognathous (sensu Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:=134);

ostia (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:347) : (n.)

outer claw (Lubbock, 1873:105) : (n.)
* on the outer side [of the tarsus of Smynthurus(sic)] was an elliptic, elongated claw, transparant above, terminating in a spine, and bearing also one large tooth and three smaller ones on its underside (Lubbock, 1873:105);
synonym of superior claw (sensu Guthrie, 1903:=23);
see also claw ;
see also unguis ;

outer lamella [of mucro] (Folsom, 1937:3) : (n.)

outer lobe of maxilla (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)
see also maxillary palp (Hopkin, 1997:=49);

outer maxilliary lobe (Potapov & Culik, 2002:69) : (n.)

outer maxillary palp (Soto-Adames, 2002:81) : (n.)

outer maxillary ramus (Yoshii, 1988:450) : (n.)

outer spine [of tarsus] (Lubbock, 1873:122) : (n.)
see also outer claw ;
see also unguis ;

outer thickening of stipes (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)

outstanding [seta] (Mitra, 1984:101) : (adj)

oval organ (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (n.)
* small, oval or elliptical modification of the integument, apparently sensory in function, that occur ventrally on the meso- and meta-thoracic trochanters, and dorsally on the coxae of the same appendages (Richards, 1968 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:36);
* small integumentary depression with rims (Richards, 1968 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:37);
* campaniform sensillum derived from hair sensillum; because oval organs are located in areas of stress, it is suggested that they are proprioceptive (Snider & Loring, 1984:35);
* homologue of campaniform sensillum [found on pterygote insects]; perform proprioceptive functions from their locations near stress points (Snider & Loring, 1984:37);
* a domed center, surrounded by a rim (Snider & Loring, 1984:37);
* a very short microchaeta with a special shape (Nayrolles, 1993:46);
* provides information on stress in the exoskeleton (Hopkin, 1997:70);

ovary (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:348) : (n.) (pl.: ovaries)

P

p-row [of setae] (Moen & Ellis, 1984:195) : (n.)

palmate (Snider, 1989:541) : (adj)

palp [of maxilla] (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (n.) (pl.: palpi) (adj.: palpal)
* bluntly conical tip of galea, below which is the short papilla, regarded as a vestigial palp with its long terminal brsitle (Carpenter, 1921:261);
* prominent papilla together with its terminal sensorial hair and one or two processes (Fjellberg, 1984:84);

Palpiger (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)

Palpus (G.) (Stummer-Traunfels, 1891 cited from Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)
* die Außenlade mit dem Taster verschmolzen (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=62);

palpus (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)
* sensory appendage of the maxilla (and labium);
see also palp [of maxilla] ;

papilla (Fjellberg, 1984:88) : (n.) (pl.: papillae)

papillate entomobryiform male genital plate (Christiansen, 1958:475) : (n.)
* [entomobryiform male genital plate bearing] a single circlet of setae but these arise between well-developed papillae; both the papillae and setae are borne on an arcuate ridge of tissue which clearly separates the genital plate into an inner and outer portion; the setae borne on this ridge are generally not normal body size (Christiansen, 1958:475);
see also entomobryiform male genital plate ;

papillate seta (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:103) : (n.)

parafurcular lobe (Snider, 1989:541) : (n.)

paraglossa (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII) : (n.) (pl.: paraglossae)
* a paired, lateral lobe of the labium articulated basally with the prementum lateral to the base of the glossa;

paraproct (Lawrence, 1978:71) : (n.)
see also lower anal valve (Lawrence, 1978:=71);

parapseudocellus (Pomorski, 2001:439) : (n.) (pl.: parapseudocelli)

paratergal fold (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)
see also oral fold (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135);

parietal (André, 1988:508) : (n.)

paroi (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (n.)

pars intercebralis (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:61) : (n.)
* partie latéro-dorsale du protocérébron (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:61);

partie conjonctive du bras dorsal (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

patch (Mitra, 1984:102) : (n.)

patina (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274) : (n.)
* the prestipes and capitulum are held in place by a supporting membrane in the form of an ovoid plate-like structure which carries at its distal end a groove in which the keel of the capitulum rests and slides. Proximally, it articulates with the anterior inner border of the stipes, independently of the cuff-like segment. It is assumed that the keel of the capitulum moves within this groove during adductor-abductor movements of the maxilla, and that this membraneous structure forms a guiding as well as a supporting mechanism (after Adams & Salmon, 1972:274);

paucituberculate (Smolis, 2001:412) : (adj)

paurichaetosis (Lawrence, 1978:79) : (n.)
* decrease of the number of setae (Lawrence, 1978:79);
see also paurochaetosis ;

paurochaetose (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:305) : (n.)
* un appauvrissement du revêtement qui reste cependant homogène sur tout le corps, la disparition de certaines soies pouvant être accompagnée du déplacement de certaines autres (Cassagnau, 1974:305);
see also paurochaetosis ;

paurochaetosis (Cassagnau, 1974:311) : (n.)
* a gradual progressive reduction of the basical chaetotaxy, accompanied by a displacement of certain setae (Cassagnau, 1974:311);

penultimate segment (Lubbock, 1873:70) : (n.)
* last but one segment;

peranal (André, 1988:515) : (n.)

perforated [lobe of postantennal organ] (Dallai, 1971:12) : (adj)

periproct (Snodgrass, 1935) : (n.)
* the terminal piece of the body containing the anus, anterior to which segmentation takes place (Snodgrass, 1935);

peritrophic membrane (Toth, 1942 cited from Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:345) : (n.)

pes (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (n.) (pl.: pedes)

pes mesothoracalis (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (n.)

pes metathoracalis (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (n.)

pes prothoracalis (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (n.)

petiolate (Folsom, 1902:91) : (adj)
* stalked;

phanère (F.) (Séguy 1967 cited from André, 1988:505) : (n.)
* any organ arising from the integument (André, 1988:505);
* setiform organ (André, 1988:505);
* hair-like projection of the cuticle articulated with the body wall by a membraneous socket (André, 1988:505);

phanerotaxy (André, 1988:503-527) : (n.)
* typology of so-called setae based on their structure (André, 1988:504);

pharyngeal dilator muscle (Adams & Salmon, 1972:285) : (n.)

pharyngeal lining of the clypeus and labrum (Packard, 1898:43) : (n.)
see also epipharynx ;

pharyngeal muscle (Adams & Salmon, 1972:285) : (n.)

pharynx (Adams & Salmon, 1972:277) : (n.)

pièces buccales (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (n.)

pilus clavatus (L.) (Tüllberg, 1872 cited from Willem, 1900:45) : (n.)
* le segment terminal du tibia porte dorsalement un organe chitineux formé d'une tige cylindrique surmontée d'une urne évasée (Willem, 1900:45);
see also tenent hair ;

pin seta (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:104) : (n.)

pinnate muscle (Adams & Salmon, 1972:279) : (n.)

plaque dorsale de l'endosternite antennaire (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

plaque ventrale de l'endosternite antennaire (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

plaque intergnathale (F.) (Fahlander, 1938 cited from Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:99) : (n.)
see also tentorium (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:=99);

plesiomorphy (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:30) : (n.) (pl.: plesiomorphies)

pleural fold [of the external mouth region] (Fjellberg, 1984:84) : (n.)

pleurale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (adj)

plica orales (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)
see also oral folds ;

pli oral (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.) (pl.: plis oraux)
see also plica orales ;

plumose (Maynard, 1951:8) : (adj)

plurichaetose (F.) (Yosii cited from Cassagnau, 1974:306) : (n.)
* multiplication des soies courtes conduisant à un revêtement plus dense; cette apparition de soies surnuméraires se faites au sein d'un revêtement déja différencié (stade 2) (Cassagnau, 1974:306);
see also plurichaetosis ;

plurichaetosis (Yosii cited from Cassagnau, 1974:311) : (n.)
* the appearance of a dens hair cover by multiplication of the short setae, superimposed on evolutionary type 2 (Cassagnau, 1974:311);
* increase of the number of setae (Lawrence, 1978:79);

plurilobed [postantennal organ] (Dallai, 1971:12) : (adj)

poche gnathale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:94) : (n.)

poche gnathale mandibulaire (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

poche gnathale mandibulo-maxillaire (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

poche gnathale maxillaire (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

poche mandibulaire (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:94) : (n.)

poche maxillaire (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:94) : (n.)

podite (Snodgrass, 1935) : (n.)
* a segment of an appendage (Snodgrass, 1935);
see also segment ;

point articulaire de la mandibule sur le bras de Folsom (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

polychaetose (F.) (Yosii cited from Cassagnau, 1974:306) : (n.)
* multiplication des soies courtes conduisant à un revêtement plus dense; cette apparition de soies surnuméraires se faites au sein d'un revêtement homogène (Cassagnau, 1974:306);
see also polychaetosis ;

polychaetosis (Yosii cited from Cassagnau, 1974:311) : (n.)
* the appearance of a dens hair cover by multiplication of the short setae, superimposed on evolutionary type 1 (Cassagnau, 1974:311);

pore canal [of middle cuticle] (Dallai, 1974:317) : (n.)

pore system [of sensory peg] (Altner & Ernst, 1974:122) : (n.)

pore tubule [of sensory peg] (Altner & Ernst, 1974:122) : (n.)

post-antennal organ (Tullberg, 1869:14 cited from Lubbock, 1873:56) : (n.)
* oblong or elliptical organ situated just caudad to the base of the antenna (Guthrie, 1903:23);
see also postantennal organ (Lubbock, 1873:=56);

post-clypeus (Packard, 1898:42) : (n.)
see also clypeus posterior (Packard, 1898:=42);

post-labium (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:93,101) : (n.)

post-occipital spur (Snider, 1989:541) : (n.)

post-rectal pocket (Leinaas, 1988:283) : (n.)
* smaller homolog of anal sack (Leinaas, 1988:283);
see also anal sack ;

postantennal bristle (Dallai, 1974:314) : (n.)
see also postantennal seta ;

postantennal organ (Folsom, 1902:88) : (n.)
* homologous, on the basis of its innervation, to the Tomosvary organ in Myriapoda (Willem, 1900; Hennings, 1906; Denis, 1926 cited from Dallai, 1971:11);
* usually oblong or elliptical sensory organ situated just caudal to the base of the antenna (Maynard, 1951:290);
* a characteristic structure found in Arthropleona which is located behind the antenna, a little in front of and laterally to the anterior corneoles of the ocular plate (Dallai, 1971:11);
* a chemoreceptor located on the side of the head between the antennal base and the ocellar spot (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

postantennal seta (Dallai, 1971:17) : (n.)
* questionable homologue of postantennal organ in Symphypleona (Dallai, 1971:12);

postantennal segment (Hopkin, 1997:47) : (n.)

postantennal structure (Mari Mutt, 1982:86) : (n.)

posterad (Loring & Snider, 1983:185) : (adj)

posterio-laterad (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (adj)

posterior : (adj)
* toward or at the hind end of the body or structure;

posterior tentorial apodeme (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.)
see also fulcrum (Hopkin, 1997:=49);

posterior unguicular lamella (Soto-Adames, 2002:81) : (n.)

postfrontal suture (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)
see also frontal suture (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:=135);

postgena (Snider & Loring, 1984:39) : (n.) (pl.: postgenae) (adj.: postgenal)
* the lower part of the occiput; when the occipital carina is absent, the gena and postgena are continuous, and the entire lower area constitutes the gena;

postlabial seta (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:28) : (n.) (pl.: postlabial setae)

postmentum (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

praecoxa (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (n.) (pl.: praecoxae)

Praetarsus (G.) (Börner, 1906:4) : (n.)
see also praetarsus ;

praetarsus (Meijere, 1901) : (n.)
* the small segment [of the leg] that bears the claws (Folsom, 1913:452);

pre-unguis (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:108) : (n.)

preanal spine (Fjellberg, 1984:96) : (n.)
* transformed p1 on abdomen 5 [of Ceratophysella duplicispinosa from Thailand] (Fjellberg, 1984:96);

precoxa (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.) (pl.: precoxae)

precoxal lobe (Moen & Ellis, 1984:199) : (n.)
synonym of subcoxal spur (sensu Moen & Ellis, 1984:=199);
synonym of precoxal process ;

precoxal process (Richards, 1968 cited from Moen & Ellis, 1984:199) : (n.)

pregenital seta (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:30) : (n.) (pl.: pregenital setae)

prélabium (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:93,101) : (n.)

prelabral setae (Mitra, 1984:104) : (n.)
* a transverse row of setae inserted in the incision between the labrum and the frontoclypeal field (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

prementum (Adams & Salmon, 1972:279) : (n.)
* basal portion of the labium, bearing antero-laterally two small labial palps (after Adams & Salmon, 1972:279);

preoral cavity (Hopkin, 1997:51) : (n.)

prestipes (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274) : (n.)
* a cuff-like segment which articulates with both the capitulum and stipes (after Adams & Salmon, 1972:274);

pretarsus (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (n.)
* the basal section of the claw (Fjellberg, 1998:11);

primary granulation [of intugement] (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.)

primary granule (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.)

primary pigment cell (Paulus, 1974:128) : (n.)

primary triangular granule (Hopkin, 1997:53) : (n.)

pro- :
* a Latin prefix meaning before or anterior; used with Latin, latinized, or Greek words to indicate the anterior (usually first) part of a structure;

processus maxillaris (Smolis, 2001:414) : (n.)

procoxa (Loring & Snider, 1983:187) : (n.) (pl.: procoxae)

proctodeum (Thibaud, 1970:151) : (n.)
* posterior intestinal canal, running from the pyloric valvula to the anus (Thibaud, 1970:151);

procuticle (Dallai, 1974:317) : (n.)
* a lamellate endocuticle and a homogeneous exocuticle (Dallai, 1974:317);

profemur (Loring & Snider, 1983:187) : (n.) (pl.: profemora)

prognathous (Maynard, 1951:5) : (adj)
* with the head more or less in the same plane as the body (horizontal) so the mouthparts are directed anteriorly;
* having the mouth parts projected forward (Maynard, 1951:290);
* mouth parts are directed forward (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:134);

projecting seta-like center [of oval organ] (Snider & Loring, 1984:37) : (n.)

proleg (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (n.)

prominent (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (adj)

pronotum (Folsom, 1937:7) : (n.)

proprioception (Pringle, 1938 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:35) : (n.)

proprioceptive (Snider & Loring, 1984:35) : (adj)

proprioceptor (Snider & Loring, 1984:36) : (n.)
* is associated with the cuticle and monitors the position of the antenna (Hopkin, 1997:68);

proral (André, 1988:524) : (n.)

prostemmatique (F.) (Laboulbene, 1864 cited from Dallai, 1971:11) : (n.)
see also postantennal organ (Dallai, 1971:=11);

prosternum (Moen & Ellis, 1984:201) : (n.)
* ventral sclerite of the prothorax, between the propleura;

prostheca (Massoud & Ellis, 1974:298) : (n.)
* un appendice en forme de barbre de chèvre sur la lamelle latéro-dorsale du capitulum maxillaire (Massoud & Ellis, 1974:292);

prothoracic : (adj)

prothorax (Lubbock, 1873:67) : (n.)
* generally the smallest of the three [thoracic segments], and is, indeed, in many genera completely covered by the mesothorax, in consequence of which the mesothorax has been more than once mistaken for the prothorax (Lubbock, 1873:67);
* first thoracic segment (Maynard, 1951:290);

prothoraxic[sic] (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:28) : (adj)
see also prothoracic ;

protibiotarsus (Loring & Snider, 1983:187) : (n.) (pl.: protibiotarsi)

protocephalic bulge (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

protocephalon (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

protocerebron (Willems, 1900:10) : (n.)
* comprenant les ganglion cérébroïdes et les lobes optiques (Willems, 1900:10);

protocerebrum (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:343) : (n.)

protrochanter (Loring & Snider, 1983:187) : (n.)

protruded [sense-knob] (Mitra, 1984:104) : (adj)

protrusible [apical sense-organ] (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (adj)

protrusible [vesicle] (Mitra, 1984:105) : (adj)

protuberance [elliptical postantennal organ] (Dallai, 1971:12) : (n.)

protuberance (Hopkin, 1997:52) : (n.)
see also secondary granule (Hopkin, 1997:=52);

proximal (Maynard, 1951:289) : (adj)

pseudanal (André, 1988:515) : (n.)

pseudanal seta (André, 1988:515) : (n.)

pseudo-pseudocellus (Jordana, 1980:103) : (n.) (pl.: pseudo-pseudocelli)
* cuticular sculpture (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:4);

pseudobothriothrix (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:105) : (n.) (pl.: pseudobothriotricha)
* smooth bothriotricha-like seta (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:104);

pseudocellar formula (Kaprus, Weiner & Pomorski, 2002:354) : (n.)

pseudocellar lid (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.)
* formed by the enlarged inner surface of the polygons of primary granulation (Rusek, 1984:3);

pseudocellar medial groove (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.)
* has its origin in the reduced primary granules and their connectives (Rusek, 1984:7);

pseudocellar rib (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.)
* longitudinally enlarged primary granule (Rusek, 1984:3);
* has its origin in the primary granule; the granule has been enlarged in one direction only (Rusek, 1984:4);

pseudocellus (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:4) : (n.) (pl.: pseudocelli)
* thinwalled circular or oval structures, surrounded by cuticular rings and with characteristic patterns of ornamentation, which are believed to permit controlled release of repellent body fluids as a defense against predators (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:4);
* this is an unfortunate term since pseudocelli have nothing whatsoever to do with vision (Hopkin, 1997:57);

pseudonychial tooth (Folsom, 1902:91) : (n.)

pseudonychium (Maynard, 1951:290) : (n.) (pl.: pseudonychia)
* bristelike false claw (Maynard, 1951:290);
* lateral basal toothed lamellae of the claw (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:15);

pseudopore (Snider, 1981 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:41) : (n.) (pl.: pseudopora)
* circular clear area in the integument of tergites and manubrium, of unknown function (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:5);
synonym of tibiotarsal oval organ (sensu Loring & Snider, 1983:=190);
synonym of tibial oval organ (sensu Snider & Loring, 1984:=40);

pseudoscale (Mitra, 1984:101) : (n.)

pubescent setae (Salmon, 1964:102) : (n.)
* setae have their shaft densely clothed with short fine hairs (Salmon, 1964:102);

[pyloric] connecting cell (Dallai & Callaini, 1979:48-52) : (n.)
* there are from three to 15 cells in a longitudinal section between the posterior region of the midgut and the cuticle pyloric ring cells (Dallai & Callaini, 1979:48);

pyloric region (Dallai & Callaini, 1979:45) : (n.)
* a short tract of the intestine, only 20-35 micron long. It can be divided into three different zones: the posterior midgut cells, the connecting cells and the cuticular ring cells (Dallai & Callaini, 1979:46);

pyloric ring cell (Dallai & Callaini, 1979:52-58) : (n.)
* these are the most characteristic cells of the pyloric region. They form a kind of compact ring surrounding the intestinal lumen, localized at the beginning of the hindgut epitthelial folds (Dallai & Callaini, 1979:52);

pyloric valve (Denis cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:280) : (n.)
* a sphyncter type orifice between the mid intestine and the rectum (Denis cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:280);
see also rectal valve (Adams & Salmon, 1972:=281);

pyloric valve (Adams & Salmon, 1972:278) : (n.)
* posterior valve of the gizzard (Adams & Salmon, 1972:279-280);

valvule cardiaque (F.) (Thibaud, 1970:151) : (n.)
see also valvule stomodéale (F.) (Thibaud, 1970:=151);

valvule stomodéale (F.) (Thibaud, 1970:151) : (n.)

valvule pylorique (F.) (Thibaud, 1970:151) : (n.)

Q

quadridentate [mucro] (Folsom, 1937:3) : (adj)

quadridentate [ramus] (Snider, 1989:541) : (adj)

quadripartite [epicuticle] (Dallai, 1974:317) : (adj)

R

rachis (Snider, 1989:541) : (n.)

ramus (Stach, 1945:11) : (n.) (pl.: rami)
* the distal part(s) of the retinaculum (Maynard, 1951:7);
* the distal piece of the tenaculum (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:19);

receptor (Altner & Thies, 1972:196) : (n.)

recessed solenidion (André, 1988:522) : (n.)

rectal sacs (Fjellberg, 1998:13) : (n.)
* three through the anus extrusible sacs (Fjellberg, 1998:13);

rectal valve (Adams & Salmon, 1972:281) : (n.)

rectum (Lubbock, 1873:74) : (n.)

recumbent : (adj)
* referring to a seta lying parallel to the body surface;

recumbent dome (Snider & Loring, 1984:40) : (n.)
see also oval organ ;

recumbent seta [of oval organ] (Snider & Loring, 1984:37) : (n.) (pl.: recumbent setae)

reticulum (Dallai, 1974:313) : (n.)
see also cuticular pattern ;

Retina (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)

retinacular ridge (Fjellberg, 1998:10) : (n.)

retinaculum (Maynard, 1951:7) : (n.)
* a ventral appendage of the third abdominal segment;
* it consists of a basal segment, with two apical arms with 1-4 teeth or hooks (Fjellberg, 1998:11);
* it locks the furca in its resting position by gripping the retinacular ridges at the base of the dentes (Fjellberg, 1998:11);
synonym of tenaculum (sensu Maynard, 1951:290);

Retinulazellen (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)

rhabdom (Paulus, 1974:125) : (n.)

Rhabdom (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)
see also rhabdom ;

Rhabdomeren (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)

ribosome (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

ridge (Fjellberg, 1984:88) : (n.)
* labral structure;

rim [of oval organ] (Richards, 1968 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:37) : (n.)

rough-endoplasmic reticulum (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

rough-surfaced cytoplasmic reticulum (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

rudimentary second antennae (Hopkin, 1997:143) : (n.)

rugose (Adams & Salmon, 1972:279) : (adj)

rugosity (Adams & Salmon, 1972:277) : (n.)

S

s-microchaeta (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

s-seta (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)
see also sensillum (Smolis, 2001:=411);

sac [of collophore] (Snider, 1989:541) : (n.)

sagittal (Packard, 1898:30) : (adj)
see also longitudinal (Packard, 1898:=30);

sagittate (Fjellberg, 1984:93) : (adj)

salivary gland (Von Olfers cited from Lubbock, 1873:74) : (n.)
* an elongated membraneous tube, that rises from one side [of the crop], which is somewhat thickened; it really rises immediately behind the mouth, passing backwards along the oesophagus, to which, however, it is so firmly attached that "ne vi quidem separari possint" (they can hardly be separated even by force) (Lubbock, 1873:74);
see also crop ;
see also mandibular gland ;

saltatorial appendage (Lubbock, 1873:55,70) : (n.)
see also furca ;

saltatory appendage (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
synonym of furcula (sensu Guthrie, 1903:=23);

scale (Lubbock, 1873:55) : (n.)
* scales are easily detached from the cuticle (Hopkin, 1997:56);
* in life, this gives many species a beautiful and characteristic iridescence (Hopkin, 1997:56);

sclerite (Packard, 1898:29) : (n.)
* cuticular piece, forming supports for the attachements of the muscles and serving to protect the soft parts within (Packard, 1898:29);
* a hardened plate of the integument; it is separated from other such plates by sutures or membrane;

sclérite dorsale du pli oral (F.) (François, 1971:46) : (n.)
* une lame placée transversalement sur la paroi dorsale de la poche gnathale mandibulaire (François, 1971:=46);

sclérite ventrale du pli oral (F.) (François, 1971:46) : (n.)
* une lame placée obliquement sur la paroi ventrale de la poche gnathale, et se relie médialement aux fulturae (François, 1971:=46);

sclerotized : (adj)
* refering to the body integument; relatively stiff and usually darkly pigmented areas compared with usually colorless and flexible membranous areas;

secondary granule (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.)

segment (Packard, 1898:30) : (n.)
* a thickening of the skin connected by folds of the integument (Packard, 1898:30);
* a subdivision of the body or of an appendage between areas of flexibility associated with muscle attachments (Snodgrass, 1935);

segmentation (Packard, 1898:30) : (n.)

Seitenauge (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)
see also ocellus ;

semi-ovoid (de Mendonça & Fernandes, 2003:5) : (adj)

semiprognathous (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:134) : (adj)
* mouth parts form an obtuse angle with the longitudinal body axis (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:134);

Semperzellen (G.) (Paulus, 1974:128) : (n.)
see also cone cell ;

Semperschen Zellen (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)
see also Semperzellen (G.) ;

sense-knob (Mitra, 1984:104) : (n.)

sense-papilla (Packard, 1898:42) : (n.) (pl.: sense-papillae)

sense club (Kaprus, Weiner & Pomorski, 2002:353) : (n.)

sense hair (Moen & Ellis, 1984:195) : (n.)

sense rod (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (n.)

sensilla chaetica (André, 1988:505) : (n.)

sensilla trichodea (Altner & Thies, 1972:196) : (n.)

sensillar formula (Potapov & Culik, 2002:69) : (n.)

sensillum (André, 1988:505) : (n.) (pl.: sensilla)
* setiform organ with an untapered end, smooth surface and possibly small pores visible only in SEM (André, 1988:505);
* thin-walled chemosensory seta (Hopkin, 1997:67);

sensorial organ of Ant. III (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:27) : (n.)
see also antennal organ ;

sensorial seta (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:27) : (n.) (pl.: sensorial setae)

sensory hair (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.)

sensory peg (Altner & Ernst, 1974:122) : (n.)

sensory receptor (Hopkin, 1997:67) : (n.)

sensory rod (Kaprus, Weiner & Pomorski, 2002:353) : (n.)

sensory seta (Yosii, 1962 cited from André, 1988:523) : (n.)

sensory spine (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (n.)

sensory structure (Hopkin, 1997:67) : (n.)

septa in gizzard (Adams & Salmon, 1972:278) : (n.)

serrate [seta] (Folsom, 1937:7) : (adj)

serrated setae (Salmon, 1964:102) : (n.)
* setae have their shafts bearing sharp tooth-like or saw-like projections (Salmon, 1964:102);

seta (Folsom, 1937:5) : (n.) (pl.: setae) (adj.: setal)
* slender, hair-like, usually sensory extension of the cuticle, connected to the body wall by a socket;
* generally speaking, tapering normally long and flexible [cuticular] structure (Salmon, 1964:102);

seta 0 [on the head] (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:117) : (n.)

seta De (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:117) : (n.)

seta Di (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:117) : (n.)

seta Di1 [on the head] (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:117) : (n.)

seta Dl (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:118) : (n.)

seta E [on the head] (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:117) : (n.)

seta L (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:118) : (n.)

seta sensualis (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)
see also sensillum (Smolis, 2001:=411);

seta Ventral (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:118) : (n.)

setiform (André, 1988:506) : (adj)

setiform organ (Hopkin, 1997:70) : (n.)

setose (Moen & Ellis, 1984:196) : (adj)

setula (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (n.) (pl.: setulae)

shaft (André, 1988:507) : (n.)

silon latéral (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (n.)

simple [maxillary] palp (Fjellberg, 1984:83) : (n.)
* only terminal hair present (Fjellberg, 1984:84);

Sinneszellen (G.) (Paulus, 1974:124) : (n.)

sinuous [ridge] (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (adj)

sinus sanguin (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:68,69,77) : (n.)

skin (Lubbock, 1873:55) : (n.)
see also integument (Packard, 1898:=28);

slender [seta] (Mitra, 1984:104) : (adj)

small abdomen (Heckman, 2000:12) : (n.)
* the posterior part of the constricted abdomen of Symphypleona (Heckman, 2000:12);
see also abdomen ;

small claw (Lubbock, 1873:133) : (n.)
see also unguiculus ;

smooth endoplasmic reticulum (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

smooth seta (Maynard, 1951:8) : (n.)

socket [of seta] (Fjellberg, 1984:84) : (n.)

socket septum (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:51) : (n.)
* separates the outer lymph cavity from the socket cavities; below the hairbase the socket septum forms a deep invagination into the outer lymph cavity (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:52);

soie (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:300) : (n.)
see also seta ;

soie céphalique a0 (F.) (Yosii, 1956 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique oc1 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique oc2 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique oc3 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique v1 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique v2 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique cervicale (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique cervicale c1 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique cervicale c2 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique cervicale c3 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique cervicale c4 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique cervicale c5 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique dorsale (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:300,301) : (n.)

soie céphalique dorsale d1 (F.) (Yosii, 1956 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique dorsale d2 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (Yosii, 1956 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique dorsale d2 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1961 (Yosii, 1961 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)
synonym of soie céphalique dorsale d3 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (sensu Cassagnau, 1974:=301);

soie céphalique dorsale d3 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (Yosii, 1956 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique dorsale d3 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1961 (Yosii, 1961 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)
synonym of soie céphalique dorsale d4 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (sensu Cassagnau, 1974:=301);

soie céphalique dorsale d4 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (Yosii, 1956 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique dorsale d4 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1961 (Yosii, 1961 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)
synonym of soie céphalique dorsale d5 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (sensu Cassagnau, 1974:=301);

soie céphalique dorsale d5 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (Yosii, 1956 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale g1 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale g1' (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale g2 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale g3 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale g4 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale g5 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale l0 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale l1 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale l2 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale l3 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale l4 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique laterale l5 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique occipitale (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)
* soie céphalique cervicale en avant ou soie céphalique pariétale en arrière (Cassagnau, 1974:301);

soie céphalique pariétale (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique pariétale p1 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique pariétale p2 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique pariétale p3 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique pariétale p4 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique pariétale p5 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique postérieure (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)
synonym of soie céphalique pariétale (F.) (sensu Cassagnau, 1974:=301);

soie céphalique subdorsale (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:300,301) : (n.)

soie céphalique subdorsale sd1 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (Yosii, 1956 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique subdorsale sd1 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1961 (Yosii, 1961 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)
synonym of soie céphalique dorsale d2 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (sensu Cassagnau, 1974:=301);

soie céphalique subdorsale sd2 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (Yosii, 1956 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique subdorsale sd2 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1961 (Yosii, 1961 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)
synonym of soie céphalique subdorsale sd3 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (sensu Cassagnau, 1974:=301);

soie céphalique subdorsale sd3 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (Yosii, 1956 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique subdorsale sd3 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1961 (Yosii, 1961 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)
synonym of soie céphalique subdorsale sd4 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (sensu Cassagnau, 1974:=301);

soie céphalique subdorsale sd4 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (Yosii, 1956 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soie céphalique subdorsale sd4 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1961 (Yosii, 1961 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)
synonym of soie céphalique subdorsale sd5 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (sensu Cassagnau, 1974:=301);

soie céphalique subdorsale sd5 (F.) sensu Yosii, 1956 (Yosii, 1956 cited from Cassagnau, 1974:301) : (n.)

soies circumgénitales (F.) (Betsch-Pinot, 1974:272) : (n.)
* les soies portées par la plaque génitale dès le 3° stade et qui ornent sa périphérie à tous les stades suivants (Betsch-Pinot, 1974:272);

soies génitales (F.) (Betsch-Pinot, 1974:272) : (n.)
* les soies portées par les lèvres génitales dès le 4° stade (Betsch-Pinot, 1974:272);

soies génitales externes (F.) (Betsch-Pinot, 1974:272) : (n.)
* les soies apparaissant au 2° stade et qui délimitent alors la zone de formation de la plaque génitale (Betsch-Pinot, 1974:272);

soies mouses (F.) (Smolis & Skarzynski, 2004:9) : (n.)

soie sensorielle (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:304) : (n.)

soie sensorielle adbdominale dorsale postérieure p5 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:304) : (n.)
* segments abdominaux I à IV (Cassagnau, 1974:304);

soie sensorielle thoracique dorsale moyenne m7 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:304) : (n.)
* segments thoraciques II et III (Cassagnau, 1974:304);

soie sensorielle thoracique dorsale postérieure p4 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:304) : (n.)
* segments thoraciques II et III (Cassagnau, 1974:304);

soie somatique dorsale (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale antérieure (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale antérieure a1 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale antérieure a2 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale antérieure a3 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale antérieure a4 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale antérieure a5 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale antérieure a6 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale antérieure a7 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale moyenne (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale moyenne m1 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale moyenne m2 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale moyenne m3 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale moyenne m4 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale moyenne m5 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale moyenne m6 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale moyenne m7 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale postérieure (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale postérieure p1 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale postérieure p2 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale postérieure p3 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale postérieure p4 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale postérieure p5 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

soie somatique dorsale postérieure p6 (F.) (Cassagnau, 1974:302) : (n.)

solenidion (André, 1988:506) : (n.) (pl.: solenidia)

somite (Packard, 1898:30) : (n.)
* a primitive body segment (Snodgrass, 1935);
see also segment (Packard, 1898:=30);

spatula (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:51) : (n.)
* characteristic distal structure of the tibiotarsal sensory-hair (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:52);

spatula groove (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:51) : (n.)

spatula-hair (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:51) : (n.)

sperm droplet [of spermatophore] (Dallai, 1974:149) : (n.)

spermatid (Dallai, 1974:149) : (n.)

spermatophore (Dallai, 1974:149) : (n.)

spermatozoon (Dallai, 1974:148) : (n.) (pl.: spermatozoa)

sphincter muscle (Denis cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:277) : (n.)
* between the mid intestine and the rectum (Denis cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:277);

spine (Salmon, 1964:102) : (n.)
* short, stout, normally sharply pointed [cuticular] structures that are not flexible but which may be plain, ciliated or serrated; true spines articulate with the cuticle (Salmon, 1964:102);

spine-like (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:168) : (adj)

spiny [seta] (Mitra, 1984:105) : (adj)

spring (Lubbock, 1873:55) : (n.)
see also saltatorial appendage (Lubbock, 1873:=55);
synonym of furcula (sensu Guthrie, 1903:=23);

springing organ (Hopkin, 1997:70) : (n.)
see also furca (Hopkin, 1997:=70);

spur (Salmon, 1964:102) : (n.)
* a spine-like cuticular structure that is solidly fused with the cuticle (Salmon, 1964:102);

stemmata (Paulus, 1974:123) : (n.)
see also ommatidia (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:=135);

sternum (Carpenter, 1921:262) : (n.) (pl.: sterna) (adj.: sternal)
* the ventral division of a body segment;

stiff [seta] (Mitra, 1984:102) : (adj)

stimulus conducting system (Altner & Thies, 1972:196) : (n.)

stipe (Hopkin, 1997:51) : (n.)

stipes (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)
* basal shaft of the maxilla (Fjellberg, 1984:84);

stomach (Lubbock, 1873:74) : (n.)
* is capacious, and extends in a straight line from the posterior end of the oesophagus to the commencement of the intestine; it is of even width throughout; externally it is provided with both longitudinal and transverse mucles, which give it a pretty, reticulated, appearance (Lubbock, 1873:74-75);

stomatogastric nervous system (François, 1969 cited from Dallai, 1974:148) : (n.)

stomodeum (Thibaud, 1970:151) : (n.)
* anterior intestinal canal, comprising the pharynx and oesophagus, running from the mouth opening to the stomodeal valvula (Thibaud, 1970:151);

stomodéum (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:99) : (n.)
see also stomodeum ;

stout [dens] (Mitra, 1984:102) : (adj)

stress area (Snider & Loring, 1984:35) : (n.)

stress axis (Snider & Loring, 1984:37) : (n.) (pl.: stress axes)

stress point (Snider & Loring, 1984:37) : (n.)

stress receptor (Pringle, 1938 cited from Snider & Loring, 1984:35) : (n.)

striae (André, 1988:507) : (n.)

striated (Mitra, 1984:102) : (adj)

striation (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:50) : (n.)

styliform (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:118) : (adj)

sub- :
* Latin prefix meaning under;
* somewhat or almost;

sub-coxa (Mitra, 1984:102) : (n.)
see also subcoxa ;

subanal appendage (Stach, 1945:1) : (n.)

subanal lobe (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

subapical denticle (Smolis & Skarzynski, [2002]:410) : (n.)

subapical groove (André, 1988:522) : (n.)
* a little funnel-shaped invagination at the bottom of which lies a tiny sphere, frequently smaller than integument granules and extending inward through the cuticle with a small, cylindrical and curved rod (André, 1988:522,523);

subapical hair (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)
see also tenent hair (Maynard, 1951:6);

subapical needle [of unguiculus] (Snider, 1989:541) : (n.)

subapical organ (Hopkin, 1997:88) : (n.)
see also subapical antennal organ ;

subapical organite (Smolis & Skarzynski, [2002]:410) : (n.)

subapical antennal organ (Fjellberg, 1998:11) : (n.)
* a sensory organ located near the tip of the apical antennal segment, consisting of a small pit with a sensillum, which continues into the antennal body (Fjellberg, 1998:11);

subapically (Snider & Loring, 1984:39) : (adv)

subcoxa (Hopkin, 1997:48) : (n.) (pl.: subcoxae) (adj.: subcoxal)

Subcoxa der 1. Maxille (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII) : (n.)
see also cardo (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII);

subcoxal process (Nayrolles, 1993:47) : (n.)

subcoxal spur (Willem, 1906 cited from Moen & Ellis, 1984:199) : (n.)

subcoxale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (adj)

subcuticle (Dallai, 1974:317) : (n.)
* a lamellate endocuticle and a homogeneous exocuticle (Dallai, 1974:317);

subcylindrical (de Mendonça & Fernandes, 2003:2) : (adj)

subequal (Loring & Snider, 1983:186) : (adj)

subgénale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95) : (adj)

subgenal fold (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)
see also oral fold (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135);

sublobal hair (Fjellberg, 1984:84) : (n.)
* hair-like process on the sublobal plate; 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4; probably homologous with the processes of the papilla [of the maxillary palp]; usually set equally spaced along a curved line; sometimes the inner hair is smaller than the others; rarely all hairs are set in a single group (Fjellberg, 1984:84);
* seta-like projection on the sublobal plate; up to 4 (Fjellberg, 1998:11);

sublobal plate [of the maxillary outer lobe] (Fjellberg, 1984:83) : (n.)
* a curved, plate-like structure, ventrally to the [maxillary] palp; the apical edge is smooth, membraneous, without granulation (Fjellberg, 1984:84);
* the distal end of the maxillary outer lobe (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

sublobular plate (Soto-Adames, 2002:81) : (n.)
see also sublobal plate ;

submentum (Fjellberg, 1998:9) : (n.)
* the baso-median section of the labium (Fjellberg, 1998:9);

subobliquely truncated [macrochaeta] (Mitra, 1984:102) : (adj)

subocular tubercles (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

sucker (Lubbock, 1873:55,68) : (n.)
see also ventral tube (Lubbock, 1873:=68);

sulcus (Wolters, 1963 cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:276) : (n.)

super lingua (Hopkin, 1997:49) : (n.) (pl.: super linguae)

superior (Maynard, 1951:290) : (adj)

superior claw (Folsom, 1902:91) : (n.)
* the larger of the two claws borne by the tarsus (Guthrie, 1903:23);

superior valve [of anal papilla] (Snider & Loring, 1984:39) : (n.)

superlangues (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:99,101) : (n.)
see also superlingua ;

superlingua (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII) : (n.) (pl.: superlinguae)
* Paired appendages overlying the hypopharynx (Denis, 1949 cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:276);
* Divided into two halves by a median sulcus (Wolters, 1963 cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:276);
* Being bi-lobed, but usually undivided (Imms, 1964 cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:276);
* The upper lobe of the hypopharynx passes forward dorsally and is associated with the roof of the buccal cavity (Adams & Salmon, 1972:274-275);
* Lateral lobe of the hypopharynx (Hopkin, 1997:51);

superlingual muscle (Adams & Salmon, 1972:280) : (n.)

superlingual notch (Adams & Salmon, 1972:275,280) : (n.)
* The distal margin of the superlingua is notched at each side, and these notches fit neatly into the recurved border of the labrum (Adams & Salmon, 1972:275);

superlingual orifice (Adams & Salmon, 1972:273) : (n.)
* The distal border of the superlingua is thus locked with the labrum at each side, but is free medially, where it forms a rounded orifice between its upper surface and the labrum above (Adams & Salmon, 1972:275);

supraanal lobe (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

suspension de l'apodème maxillaire (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:94) : (n.)

suspensorium hypopharyngien (F.) (François, 1971:46) : (n.)
* suspensorium lingual et suspensorium superlingual (François, 1971:46);

suspensorium lingual (F.) (François, 1971:46) : (n.)
* l'extrémité distale des fulturae (François, 1971:46);

suspensorium superlingual (F.) (François, 1971:46) : (n.)
* l'extrémité distale des bras antérieurs (François, 1971:46);

suture (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:135) : (n.)
see also groove ;

suture clypéo-labrale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:95,101) : (n.)

suture clypéolabrale (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:93) : (n.)

synapomorfies[sic] (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:30) : (n.)
see also synapomorphy ;

synapomorphy : (n.) (pl.: synapomorphies)

T

tagma (Bitsch & Bitsch, 2000:134) : (n.) (pl.: tagmata)

Tarsalglieder (G.) (Schött, 1891:8) : (n.)
see also tarsus ;

tarse (F.) (Nicolet, 1842:37) : (n.)
* la jambe se termine par un très-petit article bilobé en dessous à peine visible; les deux lobes de celui-ci se réunissent en dessus et forment une espèce de voûte qui recouvre la base d'un crochet bifide terminant la patte (Nicolet, 1842:37);
see also crochet (F.) ;

tarsus (Lubbock, 1873:105) : (n.) (pl.: tarsi)
* in my specimens (PL. LXV, fig. 3) the tarsus was very short, and bore two peculiar appendages (Lubbock, 1873:105);
see also inner claw ;
see also lower appendage [of tarsus] ;
see also outer claw ;
see also tarse (F.) ;

Taster (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)

tectal (André, 1988:524) : (n.)
see also tenent hair (André, 1988:=524);

tegumentary fold (Palacios-Vargas & Thibaud, 2001:28) : (n.)
see also cuticular fold ;

Telopodit (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63) : (n.)

telopodite (Hopkin, 1997:145) : (n.)

telson (Snodgrass, 1935) : (n.)
* minute extreme apical portion of the abdomen (Lawrence, 1978:69);
see also periproct (Snodgrass, 1935);

temporals anteriores (André, 1988:508) : (n.)
* anteriolateral setae of the head (André, 1988:508);

temporals posteriores (André, 1988:508) : (n.)
* posteriolateral setae of the head (André, 1988:508);

tenaculum (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.) (adj.: tenacular)
* a small organ which holds the furcula in position under the abdomen when at rest (Guthrie, 1903:23);
* a small organ, appended to the third abdominal segment, which holds the furcula in position under the abdomen (Maynard, 1951:290);
* a midventral appendage of the third abdominal segment, having a single basal piece usually with one or more setae, and two divergent distal pieces with a series of teeth on their outer surfaces (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:19);
see also retinaculum ;
see also catch (Maynard, 1951:7);

tenaculuon (Loring & Snider, 1983:190) : (n.)
see also tenaculum ;

tenant hair (Hopkin, 1997:48) : (n.)
* with sticky ends that allows to adhere to smooth surfaces (Hopkin, 1997:48);
see also tenent hair ;

tenent hair (Lubbock, 1873:55,67) : (n.)
* hair which is swollen at its extremity and which assist the animal to retain its hold on slippery surfaces (Lubbock, 1873:55);
* hair with swollen or clubbed end, borne most commonly at the tips of the tibiotarsi (Maynard, 1951:290);
* apical tibiotarsal setae that are differentiated and modified: elongated and sometimes knobbed or clavate (Fjellberg, 1998:11);
synonym of clavate hair (sensu Guthrie, 1903:=23);

tentorial projection (Hopkin, 1997:51) : (n.)

tentorium (Folsom, 1899 cited from Adams & Salmon, 1972:276) : (n.)
* un endosternite antennaire distal, un endosternite antérieur médian formé de deux lames horizontales superposées, et un endosternite postérieur proximal (François, 1971:46-47);
* Immediately posterior to the hypopharynx is a transverse bar-like structure from which two divergent arms pass anteriorly and two longer arms pass posteriorly. The two short, anterior arms are further connected by a narrow curved band. The posterior arms pass well backwards into the head capsule and articulate at their extremities with the cardo on each side. The four arms linked by the transverse portion together form a roughly H-shaped structure (Adams & Salmon, 1972:276);

tergite (Mitra, 1974:323) : (n.)
* A sclerotized subdivision of a tergum bounded by grooves, or membranous lines or areas;

tergum (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.) (pl.: terga) (adj.: tergal)
* A dorsal sclerite of a body segment, which may be subdivided into tergites (Soto-Adames, 2002:77);

terminal hair [of papilla of maxillary palp] (Fjellberg, 1984:85) : (n.)

terminal-pore sensilla (Hopkin, 1997:67) : (n.)

th (Maynard, 1951:290) :
* abbreviated expression of 'thoracic segment' (Maynard, 1951:290);

th. I (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* abbreviated expression of 'first thoracic segment' (Guthrie, 1903:23);

th. II (Guthrie, 1903:23) : (n.)
* abbreviated expression of 'second thoracic segment' (Guthrie, 1903:23);

thecogen cell (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:51) : (n.)

thoracal segment (Moen & Ellis, 1984:195) : (n.)

thoracic collar (Wang, Christiansen & Chen, 2002:66) : (n.)

thorax (Lubbock, 1873:55,67) : (n.) (pl.: thoraces) (adj.: thoracic)
* the middle tagma of the body, between the head and abdomen (Soto-Adames, 2002:77);
* consists, as usual, of three segments, prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax, each bearing a pair of legs (Lubbock, 1873:67);

tibia (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)

tibial oval organ (Snider & Loring, 1984:40) : (n.)
* pore-like structure [when observed with phase-contrast microscopy];

tibiotarsal lobe (Mitra, 1974:323) : (n.)

tibiotarsal organ (Maynard, 1951:290) : (n.)
* in the genus Sminthurides: consist of a saclike swelling and an enlarged hair; occurs near the distal ends of the tibiotarsi of the third pair of legs only (Maynard, 1951:290);

tibiotarsal oval organ (Loring & Snider, 1983:190) : (n.)
see also oval organ ;

tibiotarsal sensory-hair (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:52) : (n.)

tibiotarsal whorl (Kaprus, Weiner & Pomorski, 2002:353) : (n.)

tibiotarsus (Börner, 1902) : (n.) (pl.: tibiotarsi) (adj.: tibiotarsal)
* the tibia of Collembola (Folsom, 1913:452);

tight junction (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

tongue (Carpenter, 1921:261) : (n.)
synonym of lingua (sensu Maynard, 1951:=6);

toothlet (Christiansen & Bellinger, 2000:104) : (n.)

tormogen cell (Altner & Thies, 1972:196) : (n.)

tormogene cell [of sensory peg] (Altner & Ernst, 1974:122) : (n.)

TP-sensillum (André, 1988:505) : (n.) (pl.: TP-sensilla)
* sensillum with a terminal pore (André, 1988:505);

trabecule (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

trabécule (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:100) : (n.)

trabécule d'union antérieure (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

trabécule d'union postérieure (F.) (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

trichobothrial complex (Wang, Chen & Christiansen, 2003:241) : (n.)

trichobothrium (André, 1988:505) : (n.) (pl.: trichobothria)
* long seta in socket (Hopkin, 1997:70);
* a pit with a hair in it (Greenslade, 2009.04.20:in litt);
see also bothriotrichum ;

trichobothridium (André, 1988:507) : (n.)

trichodea (André, 1988:505) : (n.)

trichogen cell (Altner & Thies, 1972:196) : (n.)

tricobothrium (Salmon, 1964:102) : (n.) (pl.: tricobothria)
* small sensory domes, cups or swellings of the cuticle from which arise bothriotrichia, lasiotrichia, setae or bristles (Salmon, 1964:102);
see also trichobothrium ;

tridentate (Folsom, 1937:3) : (adj)

trifurcate (Fjellberg, 1998:11) : (adj)

trifurcate [maxillary] palp (Fjellberg, 1984:83) : (n.)
* [terminal hair and] both ventral and dorso-lateral processes present (Fjellberg, 1984:84);

tritocerebral commissure (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:343) : (n.)

tritocerebron (Willems, 1900:11) : (n.)
* d'où part la paire nerveuse qui dessert les ganglions de la lèvre supérieure (Willems, 1900:11);

trochanter (Maynard, 1951:6) : (n.)

trochanteral organ (Folsom, 1937:7) : (n.)

trochanteral pseudocellus (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.) (pl.: trochanteral pseudocelli)

trochanteral spine (Mitra, 1974:323) : (n.)

truncate (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:50) : (adj)
* cut off squarely at the tip;

trunk (Packard, 1898:27) : (n.)
* the body regions behind the head (Packard, 1898:27);

trunksegment (Packard, 1898:27) : (n.)
* segment of the trunk (Packard, 1898:27);

tube cylinder (Hopkin, 1997:104) : (n.)

tube digestive (F.) (Juberthie & Cassagnau, 1971:60,77) : (n.)

tube valve (Hopkin, 1997:104) : (n.)

tube vesicle (Hopkin, 1997:104) : (n.)

tubeliform (de Mendonça & Fernandes, 2003:2) : (adj)

tubercle (Folsom, 1937:5) : (n.)

tubercle De (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:118) : (n.)

tubercle Di (Pomorski & Skarzynski, 2000:117) : (n.)

tuberculate (Folsom, 1937:4) : (adj)

tubercule empodial (F.) (Denis in Grassé, 1949:125) : (n.)
see also unguicular tubercle ;

tuberculation (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

tubular labial gland (Hutasse-Jeannenot, 1974:101) : (n.)

tubus ventralis (Moen & Ellis, 1984:198) : (n.)

tunica (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:15) : (n.)
* dorsal inflated sheath of the claw (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1980:15);

U

ultrastructure (Rusek, 1984:3) : (n.)

uncrenulate (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:40) : (adj)

undulated [lobe of postantennal organ] (Dallai, 1971:12) : (adj)

ungual (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:172) : (adj)

unguicular filament (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:174) : (n.)

unguicular tubercle (Moen & Ellis, 1984:201) : (n.)

unguiculus (Schött, 1891:8) : (n.) (pl.: unguiculi)
* la griffe accessoire (Willems, 1900:10);
* smaller claw (Maynard, 1951:6);
* inferior claw (Maynard, 1951:290);
* lesser or secondary claw (Salmon, 1964:102);
* the lower part of the claw, arising from the pretarsus (Fjellberg, 1998:11);
synonym of empodium (sensu Maynard, 1951:=6,=289);
synonym of empodial appendage (sensu Maynard, 1951:=6);
see also crochet [postérieur?] (F.) ;

unguiculus inferior (L.) (Schött, 1891:8) : (n.)
see also unguiculus ;

unguiculus superior (L.) (Tüllberg, 1872 cited from Willem, 1900:45) : (n.)
see also unguis ;

unguinal (André, 1988:524) : (n.)

unguis (Willem, 1900:20) : (n.) (pl.: ungues)
* larger claw (Maynard, 1951:6);
* superior claw (Maynard, 1951:290);
* the upper part of the claw, arising from the pretarsus (Fjellberg, 1998:11);
see also crochet antérieur (F.) ;

unguis nudus (L.) (Willem, 1900:63) : (n.)
* unguis qu'il ne présente pas un capuchon (Willem, 1900:63);

unguis vaginatus (L.) (Willem, 1900:63) : (n.)
* unguis qu'il présente un capuchon (Willem, 1900:63);

Ungulum der Lobus internus (G.) (Stummer-Traunfels, 1891 cited from Börner in Schultze, 1908:64) : (n.)

ungulum [of capitulum] (Fjellberg, 1984:90) : (n.)

untere Klaue (G.) (Börner, 1906:5) : (n.)
* inferior claw;
see also unguiculus ;

Unterkiefer (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:62) : (n.)
see also erste Maxille (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:Tafel VII);

Unterkralle (G.) (Schött, 1891:8) : (n.) (pl.: Unterkrallen)
see also unguiculus (Schött, 1891:8);

unwhorled (Nayrolles, 1993:44) : (n.)
* an appendicular segment on which we cannot recognize any whorl (Nayrolles, 1993:44);

upper claw (Lubbock, 1873:190) : (n.)
see also unguis ;

upper lip (Lubbock, 1873:65) : (n.)
* consists of two more or less quadrate lobes (Lubbock, 1873:66);
see also labrum (Packard, 1898:=42);

uromere (Packard cfr. Folsom, 1937:7) : (n.)
* abdominal segment of arthropods (Folsom, 1937:7);
synonym of abdominal segment ;

urospherite (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

urotergite (Folsom, 1937:5) : (n.)
* tergite of an abdominal segment (Folsom, 1937:7);

V

vacuole (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.)

vaisseaux hépatiques (F.) (Nicolet, 1842:46) : (n.)
* les vaisseaux hépatiques, dont je n'ai pu au juste reconnaître le nombre, mais que je crois être de six, sont tubuleux et filiformes ou du même diamètre dans toute leur longeur; ils sont insérés immédiatement au-dessus du rétrécissement pylorique; leur longeur égale à peine la moitié de celle du ventricule chylifere; du reste, leur extrême ténuité et leur peu de consistance ne m'ont pas permis de les étudier en détail (Nicolet, 1842:47);
note: the observations of Nicolet (1841(sic)), Heymons (1897) and Phyliptschenko (1912) describing Malpighian tubules in Collembola may be regarded as erroneous; their mis-interpretation was probably due to the complexity of the pyloric region which was subsequently correctly interpreted by Boerlitz (1933) and confirmed by Dallai (1966) with an ultrastructural study (Dallai & Callaini, 1979:45);

valve [of anal papilla] (Snider & Loring, 1984:38) : (n.)

valve seta (Christiansen & Bellinger, 1996:169) : (n.) (pl.: valve setae)

valvula cardiaca (Humbert, 1979:41) : (n.)

valvula pylorica (Humbert, 1979:41) : (n.)

ventral : (adj)

ventral anal valve (Lawrence, 1978:69) : (n.)
* lower paired almost spherical lobe of the 'abdomen VI' (Lawrence, 1978:69);

ventral groove (Folsom, 1937:4) : (n.)
see also ventral line ;

ventral hair-like process [of papilla of maxillary palp] (Fjellberg, 1984:84) : (n.)
* curved; probably not homologous to ordinary setae as their bases are unmodified, without sockets (Fjellberg, 1984:84);

ventral line (Fjellberg, 1998:11) : (n.)
* a median furrow or channel between the labium and the anterior side of the ventral tube (Fjellberg, 1998:11);
synonym of linea ventralis ;

ventral nerve cord (Bitsch & Bitsch, 1998:343) : (n.)

ventral process [of papilla of maxillary palp] (Fjellberg, 1984:85) : (n.)
see also ventral hair-like process [of papilla of maxillary palp] ;

ventral tentacle (Lubbock, 1873:69) : (n.)
see also ventral tube ;

ventral tube (Lubbock, 1873:68) : (n.)
* a ventral unpaired appendage of the first abdominal segment;
* a tube or tubercle proceeding from the ventral side of the first (anterior) abdominal segment (Guthrie, 1903:23);
* a tube or tubercle, consisting of a fused pair of appendages, located on the ventral side of the first abdominal segment (Maynard, 1951:290);
* it has a pair of thin, extrusible sacs (Fjellberg, 1998:11);
synonym of ventral tubus ;
synonym of collophore (sensu Maynard, 1951:=7);

ventralen Lamellen [der Maxillenkopf] (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:64) : (n.)

ventrally (Maynard, 1951:5) : (adv)
see also ventral ;

ventricule chylifère (F.) (Nicolet, 1842:46) : (n.)

ventriculus (Lubbock, 1873:74) : (n.)

ventro- (Maynard, 1951:289) :

ventro-cephalad (Maynard, 1951:289) : (adj)

ventroexternal setae (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

ventrointernal setae (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

ventrolateral (André, 1988:524) : (n.)

ventrolateral setae (Smolis, 2001:411) : (n.)

verticil (André, 1988:524) : (n.)

verticillation (Nayrolles, 1993:44) : (n.)
see also whorlation ;

vesicle (Mitra, 1984:105) : (n.)

vestigial (Carpenter, 1921:260) : (adj)

W

wall (André, 1988:507) : (n.)

wallcanal [of spatula-hair] (Blottner & Eisenbeis, 1984:52) : (n.)

wax spines (Hopkin, 1997:54) : (n.)

whorl (Nayrolles, 1993:44) : (n.)

whorlation (Nayrolles, 1993:44) : (n.)
* the different organisations of setae in a transversal structure (Nayrolles, 1993:44);

wing tooth (Wang, Christiansen & Chen, 2002:66) : (n.)

WP-sensillum (André, 1988:505) : (n.) (pl.: WP-sensilla)
* sensillum with wall pores (André, 1988:505);

X

Y

Z

ziegenbärtigen Basalanhang [der Maxillenkopf] (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:66) : (n.)
see also prostheca ;

zonite (Packard, 1898:30) : (n.)
see also segment (Packard, 1898:=30);

zonula continua (Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:165) : (n.) (pl.: zonulae continuae)
synonym of tight junction (sensu Krzysztofowicz, Jura & Bilinski, 1974:=165);

Zunge (G.) (Börner in Schultze, 1908:63,Tafel VI) : (n.)
see also hypopharynx (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=63);
see also lingua (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=63);
see also glossa (Börner in Schultze, 1908:=Tafel VI);

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Drs Rafael Jordana and Kenneth Christiansen for their constructive comments.

References