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by Frans Janssens
Department of Biology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Antwerp, B-2020, Belgium
Soil surface-dwelling Collembola were collected in decomposing leaf
litter in Kata ,
at the west coast of
in the Andaman Sea,
in the southern part of Thailand.
All together, 33 specimens were collected that belong to four species.
Collembola werden verzameld in composterende bladeren
in Kata, aan de west kust van het eiland Phuket,
in de Andamanse Zee,
in het zuiden van Thailand.
In totaal werden 33 exemplaren gevonden die behoren tot vier soorten.
Keywords: Collembola, faunistics, Thailand
Koh Phuket is the largest island of Thailand in the Andaman Sea,
about 540 square kilometres.
With a longitude of some 98 degrees East of Greenwich
and a latitude of about 8 degrees North of the Equator
(UTM grid zone 47N),
Phuket's tropical climate is tempered
by cool North-East breezes from November to March,
and by fresh on-shore winds in summer months.
The Andaman Sea, separated from the Bay of Bengal by the Andaman-Nicobar
Ridge, is part of the Indian Ocean. Thailand's Andaman coast extends for
870 kilometres from the Surin Islands on the northern border with Burma to
Tarutao National Park on the southern border with Malaysia.
Two distinctively different varieties of island are found in the Andaman
Sea. Low-relief granite
intrusions, including the Surin and Similan islands, run in series roughly
parallel to the more dramatic limestone islands. Island groups such as Koh
Phi Phi have been shaped by a variety of forces from a massive limestone
platform that was deposited 350 million to 450 million years ago.
Fig.2 Phuket Island
Phuket Island itself is mainly granite, with low
forested mountains and a series of fine white-sand
beaches, mostly on the west coast. Much of the forest has been cleared,
first for rubber plantations and then for tourism development. The one
remaining significant stand of virgin rainforest can be found at
Khao Phra Thaeo Park.
Phang Nga and Krabi provinces, mainland and islands alike, display the
same dramatic limestone ("karst") geography of the Phi Phi Islands. Khao
Sok National Park, just to the north and east of Phuket, has large areas
of tropical forest, some of it still remote enough to harbour wild tigers.
Year-round temperatures on Phuket vary between
21-34 degrees Celsius. Water temperatures range from 26-28 degrees Celsius.
monsoon season, roughly November till April, brings consistently
sunny weather, cool breezes and low humidity, with moderate
seas. The southwest monsoon, May till October, sees the rainiest and
most unpredictable weather along with frequent swells of the
Material and methods
Table I. Overview of collected material
|Ordo Entomobryomorpha Börner, 1913|
|Familia Entomobryidae Schött, 1891|
|Entomobrya Rondani, 1861 sp. |
|TH1||Phuket||Kata||MJ27||1999.01.15||1a22j3||Moerenhout W||Janssens F||KAVE4|
|TH||Phuket||Kata||MJ27||1999.01.31||1a||Moerenhout W||Janssens F||KAVE|
|TH||Phuket||Kata||MJ27||1999.02.04||1a1j||Moerenhout W||Janssens F||KAVE|
|Lepidocyrtus Bourlet, 1839 sp. |
|TH||Phuket||Kata||MJ27||1999.01.15||4a||Moerenhout W||Janssens F||KAVE|
|TH||Phuket||Kata||MJ27||1999.01.31||2a||Moerenhout W||Janssens F||KAVE|
|TH||Phuket||Kata||MJ27||1999.02.04||1a2j||Moerenhout W||Janssens F||KAVE|
|Salina MacGillivray, 1894 sp. |
|TH||Phuket||Kata||MJ27||1999.01.15||4a2j||Moerenhout W||Janssens F||KAVE|
|TH||Phuket||Kata||MJ27||1999.02.05||1a||Moerenhout W||Janssens F||KAVE|
|Familia Isotomidae Börner, 1913|
|Pseudisotoma Handschin, 1924 sp. |
|TH||Phuket||Kata||MJ27||1999.01.15||1a3j||Moerenhout W||Janssens F||KAVE|
|TH||Phuket||Kata||MJ27||1999.02.04||1a5j||Moerenhout W||Janssens F||KAVE|
|TH||Phuket||Kata||MJ27||1999.02.05||1j||Moerenhout W||Janssens F||KAVE|
4 KAVE=Koninklijke Antwerpse Vereniging voor Entomologie
Kata is a little seaside village, far south at the western
coast of Phuket, around a rocky with jungle covered headland and a little cove.
Collembola were collected by William Moerenhout in two habitats:
in decomposing leaf litter in the garden of the
Lucky guest house, 110/44-45 Moo 4, Kata-Karon,
about 1 km inland from the Kata Yai Beach
(1999.01.15, 1999.02.04 and 1999.02.05)
in decomposing leaf litter at the border of the tidal zone
of the rocky Northern end of the Kata Yai bay
Collections were made by hand,
sampling litter from the soil into a flat plate
and using a mouth operated
to collect the specimens.
The specimens were immediately fixated in the
fixative of Gisin (1960) 1
and transfered in 96% ethanol after temptative generic identification
Generic identification is based on the keys of Gisin (1960),
Fjellberg (1980) and Palissa (1964).
The specimens are kept in the collection of the
Royal Entomological Society of Antwerp.
In total, 33 specimens were collected divided among four species.
The ecology and the habitat affinity is shortly discussed for
the four species.
Three adult and three juvenile specimens were found.
Seven adult and two juvenile specimens were found.
Three adult and eight juvenile specimens were found.
Five adult and two juvenile specimens were found.
We would like to thank William Moerenhout for collecting the
Collembola during his visit to Thailand.
1 Gisin's fixative :
| 95% ethanol||750 ml|
| ethyl ether||250 ml|
| glacial acetic acid||30 ml|
| 40% formaldehyde||3 ml|