http://www.collembola.org/key/sminthur.htm - Last updated on 2017.10.31 by Frans Janssens
Checklist of the Collembola: Key to the species of Sminthurus from the Palaearctic region

This key is still under construction. Note that missing figures will be provided as soon as possible. Currently, the key is in the feasibility study phase to find out how to integrate in the checklist in a modular way a key that has been generated with DELTA.

Gerhard Bretfeld, Raiffeisenstr. 7B, 24242 Felde, Germany
Frans Janssens, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, B-2020, Belgium

Rationale

The rationale for taxa used and not used as well as subtaxonomic classification for some taxa is to be provided.

Key

Note that no distinction between subtaxa and taxa is made in the key.

1(0).   Fourth antennal segment with 27 - 30 subsegments... variegatus
        Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments......... 2
 
2(1).   Mucro with both posterior edges smooth...................... 3
        Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy,
          notched or denticulate................................... 21
 
3(2).   Mucronal seta missing....................................... 4
        Mucronal seta present....................................... 8
 
4(3).   Pseudonychia of claws less then half the claw or missing.... 5
        Pseudonychia of claws longer then half the claw............. 7
 
5(4).   Fourth antennal segment with 17 subsegments................. 6
        Fourth antennal segment with 21 subsegments......... wahlgreni
 
6(5).   Claws broad; third claw with distinct inner tooth...... wutaii
        Claws slender; third claw with weak inner tooth........ stachi
 
7(4).   Claws with tunica; third subcoxa with 1 + 1 setae; ventral
          tube with 2 + 2 setae............................ bourgeoisi 1
        Claws without or with small tunica; third subcoxa with 2 + 2
          setae; ventral tube with 1 + 1 setae......... multipunctatus 2
 
8(3).   Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots.. 9
        Body colour with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots..... 20
 
9(8).   Body not only with small violet spots...................... 10
        Body only with small violet spots............. rubidipunctatus
 
10(9).  Fifth abdominal segment with 1 + 1 setae above bothriotrichia
          D + D.................................................... 11
        Fifth abdominal segment with 2 + 2 setae above bothriotrichia
          D + D.................................................... 17
 
11(10). Third subcoxa with 1 short, distal seta.................... 12
        Third subcoxa with 2 setae................................. 14
 
12(11). Fifth abdominal segment with dark cross stripes; postantennal
          setae short...................................... orientalis
        Fifth abdominal segment without dark cross stripes;
          postantennal setae long.................................. 13
 
13(12). Third tibiotarsus row p with 7 setae; ventral tube with 1 + 1
          setae............................................... viridis
        Third tibiotarsus row p with 8 setae; ventral tube with 2 + 2
          setae............................................ bourgeoisi
 
14(11). Tibiotarsi inner setae acuminate........................... 15
        Tibiotarsi inner setae blunt......................... nigrinus
 
15(14). Fifth abdominal segment with dark cross stripes; postantennal
          setae short...................................... orientalis 3
        Fifth abdominal segment without cross stripes; postantennal
          setae long............................................... 16
 
16(15). Appendices anales long; ventral tube with 2 + 2 setae.........
           ............................................ nigromaculatus 8
        Appendices anales short; ventral tube with 1 + 1 setae........
           ............................................ multipunctatus
 
17(10). Third tibiotarsus with all inner setae long, thick and
          acuminate................................................ 18
        Third tibiotarsus with some inner setae long, stout, rough and
          abruptly pointed................................. pardalinus
 
18(17). Fifth abdominal segment with setae A1 longer then A2; ventral
          tube with 1 + 1 setae............................ hispanicus
        Fifth abdominal segment with setae A1 shorter then A2; ventral
          tube with 2 + 2 setae.................................... 19
 
19(18). Third subcoxa with 1 + 1 setae; third tibiotarsus row p with 7
          setae.......................................... leucomelanus
        Third subcoxa with 2 + 2 setae; third tibiotarsus row p with 8
          setae........................................ osmeryzskensis
 
20(8).  Dorsal side of head and abdomen with dark band...... maculatus
        Dorsal side of head and abdomen without dark band, only sixth
          abdominal segment with 3 dark spots............. bozoulensis
 
21(2).  Mucronal seta missing...................................... 22
        Mucronal seta present...................................... 23
 
22(21). Claws broad; fifth abdominal segment with setae A1 rough and
          shorter than A2; postantennal setae short and slender.......
           .................................................. montanus
        Claws slender; fifth abdominal segment with setae A1 smooth
          and longer than A2; postantennal setae short and broad......
           ................................................ muscicolus
 
23(21). Body with small blue spots.......................... coeruleus
        Body without small blue spots.............................. 24
 
24(23). Fifth abdominal segment with dark cross stripes...............
           ................................................ orientalis 4
        Fifth abdominal segment without dark cross stripes......... 25
 
25(24). Mucro with few notches........................ primorskiyensis
        Mucro with one or both posterior edges with many teeth..... 26
 
26(25). Mucronal seta as long as mucro............................. 27
        Mucronal seta shorter than mucro........................... 28
 
27(26). Dens with 3, 2, 2 distal anterior setae; large abdomen brown
          mottled with black; ratio of dens : mucro 5............ abei
        Dens with 3, 3, 3 distal anterior setae; large abdomen with
          several dark, narrow longitudinal stripes; ratio of dens :
          mucro 3.5........................................ serrulatus
 
28(26). Ratio of dens : mucro less than 3.......................... 29
        Ratio of dens : mucro more than 3.......................... 30
 
29(28). Large abdomen laterally with 1 pair of large dark spots;
          pseudonychia of claws short and smooth........... cogsonzavi
        Large abdomen yellow with violet tints; pseudonychia of claws
          toothed................................... serratomucronatus
 
30(28). Dens with 3, 2, 2 distal anterior setae; fourth antennal
          segment with 17 subsegments; large abdomen with 1 pair of
          violet, longitudinal bands........................ ghilarovi
        Dens with 3, 3, 3 distal anterior setae; fourth antennal
          segment with 22 subsegments; large abdomen on posterior part
          dark pigment................................... denticulatus

Endnotes

1 The species S. bourgeoisi appears in the key twice as some of its characteristics vary.

2 The species S. multipunctatus appears in the key twice as some of its characteristics vary.

3 The species S. orientalis appears in the key three times as some of its characteristics vary.

4 The species S. orientalis appears in the key three times as some of its characteristics vary.

5 Not included in this key are six doubtful species, the data of which are listed in Bretfeld (1999).

6 Also not included is Sminthurus melanonotus Uchida, 1938, which species belongs to another genus (postantennal setae missing, long body setae with tip cut and toothed, dens with 2 knobbed posterior setae).

7 The Sminthurus species with spatulated or clavate tibiotarsal setae are now included in the new genus Janusius.

8 In the systematics S. nigromaculatus is considered as an eco-variant of S. viridis.


Differential diagnoses

abei
Body without small blue spots. Dens with 3, 2, 2 distal anterior setae. Fifth abdominal segment without dark cross stripes. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Large abdomen brown mottled with black. Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy, notched or denticulate. Mucro with one or both posterior edges with many teeth. Mucronal seta present. Mucronal seta as long as mucro. Ratio of dens : mucro 5.

bourgeoisi
Body not only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fifth abdominal segment without dark cross stripes. Fifth abdominal segment with 1 + 1 setae above bothriotrichia D + D. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present. Postantennal setae long. Third subcoxa with 1 short, distal seta. Third tibiotarsus row p with 8 setae. Ventral tube with 2 + 2 setae.

bourgeoisi 1
Claws with tunica. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta missing. Pseudonychia of claws longer then half the claw. Third subcoxa with 1 + 1 setae. Ventral tube with 2 + 2 setae.

bozoulensis
Body colour with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Dorsal side of head and abdomen without dark band, only sixth abdominal segment with 3 dark spots. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present.

coeruleus
Body with small blue spots. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy, notched or denticulate. Mucronal seta present.

cogsonzavi
Body without small blue spots. Fifth abdominal segment without dark cross stripes. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Large abdomen laterally with 1 pair of large dark spots. Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy, notched or denticulate. Mucro with one or both posterior edges with many teeth. Mucronal seta present. Mucronal seta shorter than mucro. Pseudonychia of claws short and smooth. Ratio of dens : mucro less than 3.

denticulatus
Body without small blue spots. Dens with 3, 3, 3 distal anterior setae. Fifth abdominal segment without dark cross stripes. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Fourth antennal segment with 22 subsegments. Large abdomen on posterior part dark pigment. Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy, notched or denticulate. Mucro with one or both posterior edges with many teeth. Mucronal seta present. Mucronal seta shorter than mucro. Ratio of dens : mucro more than 3.

ghilarovi
Body without small blue spots. Dens with 3, 2, 2 distal anterior setae. Fifth abdominal segment without dark cross stripes. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Fourth antennal segment with 17 subsegments. Large abdomen with 1 pair of violet, longitudinal bands. Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy, notched or denticulate. Mucro with one or both posterior edges with many teeth. Mucronal seta present. Mucronal seta shorter than mucro. Ratio of dens : mucro more than 3.

hispanicus
Body not only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fifth abdominal segment with 2 + 2 setae above bothriotrichia D + D. Fifth abdominal segment with setae A1 longer then A2. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present. Third tibiotarsus with all inner setae long, thick and acuminate. Ventral tube with 1 + 1 setae.

leucomelanus
Body not only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fifth abdominal segment with 2 + 2 setae above bothriotrichia D + D. Fifth abdominal segment with setae A1 shorter then A2. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present. Third subcoxa with 1 + 1 setae. Third tibiotarsus row p with 7 setae. Third tibiotarsus with all inner setae long, thick and acuminate. Ventral tube with 2 + 2 setae.

maculatus
Body colour with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Dorsal side of head and abdomen with dark band. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present.

montanus
Claws broad. Fifth abdominal segment with setae A1 rough and shorter than A2. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy, notched or denticulate. Mucronal seta missing. Postantennal setae short and slender.

multipunctatus
Appendices anales short. Body not only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fifth abdominal segment without cross stripes. Fifth abdominal segment with 1 + 1 setae above bothriotrichia D + D. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present. Postantennal setae long. Third subcoxa with 2 setae. Tibiotarsi inner setae acuminate. Ventral tube with 1 + 1 setae.

multipunctatus 2
Claws without or with small tunica. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta missing. Pseudonychia of claws longer then half the claw. Third subcoxa with 2 + 2 setae. Ventral tube with 1 + 1 setae.

muscicolus
Claws slender. Fifth abdominal segment with setae A1 smooth and longer than A2. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy, notched or denticulate. Mucronal seta missing. Postantennal setae short and broad.

nigrinus
Body not only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fifth abdominal segment with 1 + 1 setae above bothriotrichia D + D. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present. Third subcoxa with 2 setae. Tibiotarsi inner setae blunt.

nigromaculatus 8
Appendices anales long. Body not only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fifth abdominal segment without cross stripes. Fifth abdominal segment with 1 + 1 setae above bothriotrichia D + D. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present. Postantennal setae long. Third subcoxa with 2 setae. Tibiotarsi inner setae acuminate. Ventral tube with 2 + 2 setae.

orientalis
Body not only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fifth abdominal segment with dark cross stripes. Fifth abdominal segment with 1 + 1 setae above bothriotrichia D + D. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present. Postantennal setae short. Third subcoxa with 1 short, distal seta.

orientalis 3
Body not only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fifth abdominal segment with dark cross stripes. Fifth abdominal segment with 1 + 1 setae above bothriotrichia D + D. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present. Postantennal setae short. Third subcoxa with 2 setae. Tibiotarsi inner setae acuminate.

orientalis 4
Body without small blue spots. Fifth abdominal segment with dark cross stripes. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy, notched or denticulate. Mucronal seta present.

osmeryzskensis
Body not only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fifth abdominal segment with 2 + 2 setae above bothriotrichia D + D. Fifth abdominal segment with setae A1 shorter then A2. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present. Third subcoxa with 2 + 2 setae. Third tibiotarsus row p with 8 setae. Third tibiotarsus with all inner setae long, thick and acuminate. Ventral tube with 2 + 2 setae.

pardalinus
Body not only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fifth abdominal segment with 2 + 2 setae above bothriotrichia D + D. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present. Third tibiotarsus with some inner setae long, stout, rough and abruptly pointed.

primorskiyensis
Body without small blue spots. Fifth abdominal segment without dark cross stripes. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy, notched or denticulate. Mucro with few notches. Mucronal seta present.

rubidipunctatus
Body only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present.

serratomucronatus
Body without small blue spots. Fifth abdominal segment without dark cross stripes. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Large abdomen yellow with violet tints. Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy, notched or denticulate. Mucro with one or both posterior edges with many teeth. Mucronal seta present. Mucronal seta shorter than mucro. Pseudonychia of claws toothed. Ratio of dens : mucro less than 3.

serrulatus
Body without small blue spots. Dens with 3, 3, 3 distal anterior setae. Fifth abdominal segment without dark cross stripes. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Large abdomen with several dark, narrow longitudinal stripes. Mucro with one or both posterior edges not smooth, but wavy, notched or denticulate. Mucro with one or both posterior edges with many teeth. Mucronal seta present. Mucronal seta as long as mucro. Ratio of dens : mucro 3.5.

stachi
Claws slender. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Fourth antennal segment with 17 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta missing. Pseudonychia of claws less then half the claw or missing. Third claw with weak inner tooth.

variegatus
Fourth antennal segment with 27 – 30 subsegments.

viridis
Body not only with small violet spots. Body colour not with dorsal dark band or dorsal dark spots. Fifth abdominal segment without dark cross stripes. Fifth abdominal segment with 1 + 1 setae above bothriotrichia D + D. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta present. Postantennal setae long. Third subcoxa with 1 short, distal seta. Third tibiotarsus row p with 7 setae. Ventral tube with 1 + 1 setae.

wahlgreni
Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Fourth antennal segment with 21 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta missing. Pseudonychia of claws less then half the claw or missing.

wutaii
Claws broad. Fourth antennal segment with at most 25 subsegments. Fourth antennal segment with 17 subsegments. Mucro with both posterior edges smooth. Mucronal seta missing. Pseudonychia of claws less then half the claw or missing. Third claw with distinct inner tooth.


References