http://www.collembola.org/key/sphyheca.htm - Last updated on 2017.10.31 by Frans Janssens
Checklist of the Collembola: Key to the species of Sphyrotheca

This key is still under construction. Note that missing figures will be provided as soon as possible. Currently, the key is in the feasibility study phase to find out how to integrate in the checklist in a modular way a key that has been generated with DELTA.

Gerhard Bretfeld, Zoological Institute, University of Kiel, 24098 Kiel, Germany
Frans Janssens, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, B-2020, Belgium

Rationale

The rationale for taxa used and not used as well as subtaxonomic classification for some taxa is to be provided.

Key

Note that no distinction between subtaxa and taxa is made in the key.

1(0).   Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae........... 2
        Anterior side of dens without apical setae: formula 0, , 1....
           .......................................... coeruleocapitata
 
2(1).   Anterior side of dens with 1 apical seta: formula 1, , 1......
           ................................................. caputalba
        Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta.......... 3
 
3(2).   Anterior side of dens with 1 crossrow of apical setae....... 4
        Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical
          setae.................................................... 12
 
4(3).   Dorsal part of head with 1 median seta apm; frons rows b with
          3 + 3 setae......................................... ozeiana
        Dorsal part of head with 2 or 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm;
          frons rows b with 2 + 2 setae............................. 5
 
5(4).   Dorsal part of head with 2 median setae: m2, apm..... sinensis
        Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm........ 6
 
6(5).   Empodium iii with outer tooth............................... 7
        Empodium iii without tooth.................................. 9
 
7(6).   Dorsal part of head with spines of different length and width.
           ............................................. minnesotensis 3
        Dorsal part of head with spines of equal length and width... 8
 
8(7).   Filaments of all empodia thickened and exceeding claws... nani
        Filaments of empodium iii short and thin, not exceeding claw..
           ................................................. gangetica
 
9(6).   Dorsal parts of head with all modified setae as short cones...
           ................................................. dawydoffi
        Dorsal parts of head with setae some long, some short...... 10
 
10(9).  Setae a1, b1, 2 + 2, between antennae of normal setal shape or
          slightly thickened....................................... 11
        Setae a1, b1, 2 + 2, between antennae short and thin..........
           .......................................... madagascariensis
 
11(10). Head apex with 3 + 3 short setae, all slender.................
           ............................................. multifasciata 3
        Head apex with 3 + 3 short setae, some expanded, some slender.
           .............................................. nanjingensis
 
12(3).  Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1
          apical and 1 subapical crossrow.......................... 13
        Anterior side of dens with 3 crossrows of apical setae:
          formula 3/4?, 2, 2, , 1.............................. boneti 1
 
13(12). Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 1 seta:
          formula 3/4?, 1, , 1..................................... 14
        Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta:
          formula 3/4?, 2, , 1..................................... 15
 
14(13). Dorsal part of head with 2 median setae: m2, apm..............
           ................................................. santiagoi 4
        Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm..........
           ................................................. formosana
 
15(13). Dorsal part of head with 2 median setae: m2, apm........... 16
        Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm....... 21
 
16(15). Filament of empodium iii thickened and exceeding claws; head
          frons with setae b2 much shorter than the other spines,
          about 1/4 or 1/3................................. bellingeri
        Filament of empodium iii thin; head frons with setae b2 equal
          to or shorter than the other spines...................... 17
 
17(16). Spines of large abdomen rough.............................. 18
        Spines of large abdomen smooth.......................... aleta
 
18(17). Claws with lateral pseudonychia............................ 19
        Claws without lateral pseudonychia............... mucroserrata
 
19(18). Spines of head rough; trochanter iii with 5 normal setae... 20
        Spines of head smooth; trochanter iii with 4 normal setae.....
           .............................................. vanderdrifti
 
20(19). Frons of head with setal pair a1..................... karlarum
        Frons of head without setal pair a1.................... peteri
 
21(15). Tip of mucro with incision or a long spine................. 22
        Tip of mucro without incision or a long spine.............. 25
 
22(21). Empodium iii with outer tooth; filament iii shorter than
          empodium iii............................................. 23
        Empodium iii without outer tooth; filament iii and empodium
          iii of same length................................. coerulea
 
23(22). Mucro with asymmetrical incision: tip with 1 long outer spin..
           ........................................................ 24
        Mucro with symmetrical incision........................ boneti 2
 
24(23). Outer posterior edge of mucro smooth; posterior side of dens
          with about 17 setae.......................... spinimucronata
        Outer posterior edge of mucro undulated; posterior side of
          dens with about 13 setae........................... nepalica
 
25(21). Filament iii short and not exceeding claw; filaments of all
          empodia thin...................................... implicata
        Filament iii strong and exceeding claw; filaments of empodia i
          and ii thickened................................... machadoi

Endnotes

1 Specimen A.

2 Specimen B.

3 Sensu Bretfeld, 2000.

4 Sensu Lawrence, 1968.

5 Sminthurus maculatus Schött, 1883 not included as it is not completely described.

6 Sminthurus pseudofuscus Schött, 1901 not included as it is not completely described.

7 Sphyrotheca multifasciata Börner, 1909 (formae s.s., ornata and pallidinota) not included as they are not completely described.

8 Sphyrotheca multifasciata sensu Ionesco, 1915 not included as Stach, 1956:206 doubts in this generic description.

9 Sphyrotheca multifasciata sensu Womersley, 1932 not included as these specimens have never been restudied. Gisin, 1944:117 mentioned this occurence without commentary. In Gisin 1960 it is not mentioned, contrary to the note by Greenslade 1994:135.

10 Sphyrotheca multifasciata sensu Uchida, 1957 not included as it is not completely described.


Differential diagnoses

aleta
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 2 median setae: m2, apm. Filament of empodium iii thin. Head frons with setae b2 equal to or shorter than the other spines. Spines of large abdomen smooth. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1.

bellingeri
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 2 median setae: m2, apm. Filament of empodium iii thickened and exceeding claws. Head frons with setae b2 much shorter than the other spines, about 1/4 or 1/3. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1.

boneti 1
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 3 crossrows of apical setae: formula 3/4?, 2, 2, , 1. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae.

boneti 2
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Empodium iii with outer tooth. Filament iii shorter than empodium iii. Mucro with symmetrical incision. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1. Tip of mucro with incision or a long spine.

caputalba
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 1 apical seta: formula 1, , 1.

coerulea
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Empodium iii without outer tooth. Filament iii and empodium iii of same length. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1. Tip of mucro with incision or a long spine.

coeruleocapitata
Anterior side of dens without apical setae: formula 0, , 1.

dawydoffi
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 2 or 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal parts of head with all modified setae as short cones. Empodium iii without tooth. Frons rows b with 2 + 2 setae.

formosana
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 1 seta: formula 3/4?, 1, , 1.

gangetica
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 2 or 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal part of head with spines of equal length and width. Empodium iii with outer tooth. Filaments of empodium iii short and thin, not exceeding claw. Frons rows b with 2 + 2 setae.

implicata
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Filament iii short and not exceeding claw. Filaments of all empodia thin. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1. Tip of mucro without incision or a long spine.

karlarum
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Claws with lateral pseudonychia. Dorsal part of head with 2 median setae: m2, apm. Filament of empodium iii thin. Frons of head with setal pair a1. Head frons with setae b2 equal to or shorter than the other spines. Spines of head rough. Spines of large abdomen rough. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1. Trochanter iii with 5 normal setae.

machadoi
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Filament iii strong and exceeding claw. Filaments of empodia i and ii thickened. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1. Tip of mucro without incision or a long spine.

madagascariensis
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 2 or 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal parts of head with setae some long, some short. Empodium iii without tooth. Frons rows b with 2 + 2 setae. Setae a1, b1, 2 + 2, between antennae short and thin.

minnesotensis 3
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 2 or 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal part of head with spines of different length and width. Empodium iii with outer tooth. Frons rows b with 2 + 2 setae.

mucroserrata
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Claws without lateral pseudonychia. Dorsal part of head with 2 median setae: m2, apm. Filament of empodium iii thin. Head frons with setae b2 equal to or shorter than the other spines. Spines of large abdomen rough. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1.

multifasciata 3
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 2 or 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal parts of head with setae some long, some short. Empodium iii without tooth. Frons rows b with 2 + 2 setae. Head apex with 3 + 3 short setae, all slender. Setae a1, b1, 2 + 2, between antennae of normal setal shape or slightly thickened.

nani
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 2 or 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal part of head with spines of equal length and width. Empodium iii with outer tooth. Filaments of all empodia thickened and exceeding claws. Frons rows b with 2 + 2 setae.

nanjingensis
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 2 or 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal parts of head with setae some long, some short. Empodium iii without tooth. Frons rows b with 2 + 2 setae. Head apex with 3 + 3 short setae, some expanded, some slender. Setae a1, b1, 2 + 2, between antennae of normal setal shape or slightly thickened.

nepalica
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Empodium iii with outer tooth. Filament iii shorter than empodium iii. Mucro with asymmetrical incision: tip with 1 long outer spin. Outer posterior edge of mucro undulated. Posterior side of dens with about 13 setae. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1. Tip of mucro with incision or a long spine.

ozeiana
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 1 median seta apm. Frons rows b with 3 + 3 setae.

peteri
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Claws with lateral pseudonychia. Dorsal part of head with 2 median setae: m2, apm. Filament of empodium iii thin. Frons of head without setal pair a1. Head frons with setae b2 equal to or shorter than the other spines. Spines of head rough. Spines of large abdomen rough. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1. Trochanter iii with 5 normal setae.

santiagoi 4
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 2 median setae: m2, apm. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 1 seta: formula 3/4?, 1, , 1.

sinensis
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 2 or 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Dorsal part of head with 2 median setae: m2, apm. Frons rows b with 2 + 2 setae.

spinimucronata
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Dorsal part of head with 3 median setae: m1, m2, apm. Empodium iii with outer tooth. Filament iii shorter than empodium iii. Mucro with asymmetrical incision: tip with 1 long outer spin. Outer posterior edge of mucro smooth. Posterior side of dens with about 17 setae. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1. Tip of mucro with incision or a long spine.

vanderdrifti
Anterior side of dens with 1 or more apical setae. Anterior side of dens with 2 crossrows of apical setae: 1 apical and 1 subapical crossrow. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 apical seta. Anterior side of dens with more than 1 crossrow of apical setae. Claws with lateral pseudonychia. Dorsal part of head with 2 median setae: m2, apm. Filament of empodium iii thin. Head frons with setae b2 equal to or shorter than the other spines. Spines of head smooth. Spines of large abdomen rough. Subapical crossrow of anterior side of dens with 2 seta: formula 3/4?, 2, , 1. Trochanter iii with 4 normal setae.


References